How much time in training? The right answer is none to some.
Except for men in certain professions, in 1860 any male citizen between the ages of eighteen and fifty was assumed to have spent time in the militia. Eligible men in every beat or precinct were called to the drill field on a regular basis for training. Quality of training depended heavily on the officers responsible for drill, but the opportunity was certainly there.
After passage of the military act of April 16, 1862, conscripts were taken to camp of instruction for more drill and training. From time to time, groups of conscripts were forwarded from camp to the army. For example, a batch of fifty conscripts from the camp at Talladega might be sent to an Alabama brigade in the Army of Tennessee. Ten conscripts each were then assigned to the five regiments in this brigade.
Soldiers are not generally kind and gracious to newcomers. A good-natured soldier might offer a word or two of advice to recruits, but a safe place in the rear was not in the cards.