The Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board

Re: Merrill Pence (1994) Chapter 7


Mixed emotions filled the breasts of the men being transported toward
hospitals that had been meticulously prepared to receive them. After
spending all day as prisoners on the boat from Baltimore, the long line of
men were transferred to Confederate ships, one of which was the Dixie,
about 3 p.m. Sailing from City Point, Va., they disembarked and spent the
night on shore at Williamsburg. The next day, April 11, being loaded in
railroad cars, they were taken to camps at Williamsburg, Richmond or
Petersburg, Va., where the 19th Ark. was quartered. Officers from the 19th
Ark. were not present and the temporary officers were not very strict,
allowing passes into town. Recieving back pay, celebrations were in
order. It was a restful time as they remained in camp for almost a full
month, rejoycing their deliverance.

This time of rest came to an abrupt end at 2 a. m. on the morning of May 4,
1863. when the drum beat signalled for them to assemble and form
ranks. When light begin to appear in the eastern sky, they had been issued
new arms and equipment for the field, at 9 a. m., they left by train for
Richmond. Their own officers arrived May 5th, and took command of the men
the next day. The records reveal that 362 men from the 19th Ark. were
exchanged in April and May, 1863, consisting of 331 enlisted men and 31
officers. Enlisted men were exchanged April 10, the officers, April 29,
with those enlisted men in the hospital being held until May 21. Several
men were so weakened from illness, they were unable to resume any further
service. Some were hospitalized for a time after which they were
discharged or furloughed, others were transferred to the service in
Arkansas. Those exchanged later are not included on the following lists of
the 19th Ark. being exchanged. Names of the sick who were exchanged, but
did not return to service are listed below, with their date of separation.

James A. Bell (C) 7-21-63. Anthony Blackwell (H).

N. D. Caldwell (I) 5-3. G. Gibson (G).

J. E. Green (H). W. H. Gunn (G) 5-10.

L. C. Hill (H). J. W. Highfield (A) 5-21.

J. M. Keister (K). 5-18. A. H. Kelley (C).

B. T. W. C. Layne (E). R. A. Maddox (K) 4-19.

Richard S. Ray (K) 5-5. William Ross (G) 5-19.

James Scott (G) 5-10. J. W. Smith (G) 5-10.

G. W. Sullivan (C) 5-20. Robert Wright (H).

Thomas J. Neal (F) transferred April 29, 24th N. C. Vol's.

James L. Baker (H) detailed, Douglas' Battery on May 1, 1863.

Some dying in Virginia hosp. of disease from captivity, including:

Abraham Bolt (A) 4-23. W. W. Cherry (F) 5-2.

William T. Choat (D) 4-13. M. M. Draper (I) 5-27.

R. W. Drapes (B) 5-1. E. B. Carle (E) 6-1.

L. F. Carter (E) 6-7. P. B. Goshen (G) 4-19.


A. T. Hamiter (E) 4-20. D. W. Hartsfield (I) 5-28.

E. P. Hendricks (E) 6-15. James P. Hipp (A) 5-4.

J. M. Harder (B) 4-21. W. H. Jordan (B) 4-24.

Larkin Lewis (D) 6-5. Redding Lipsey, Jr. (E) 4-22.

J. H. Long (B) 6-20. G. W. Malone (K) 4-21.

P. H. Moore (E) 7-28. J. M. Myrick (G) 5-?.

Z. T. Perrin (D) 5-22. Reason Sorrels (B) 5-17.

Daniel Stewart (H) 4-30. A. J. Viney (I) 4-11.

John Walden (D) 4-14. Morgan West (D) 7-8.

J. P. Wilson (I) 4-22. John Yandell (H) 5-23.

James Young (D) 4-18.

Many men were retained in Virginia hospitals for further treatment as the
Regt. left the area, some returning to their unit later, others never
returned to duty at all. Of these, William McGee (H), was last seen in the
hospital at Liberty, Virginia in June, 1863. As a prisoner, he had been
hospitalized at St. Louis, Mo. Feb. 28, 1863. E. E. Higginbottom (C) was
hospitalized April 11, released to duty May 16, possibly returning to the
regiment and/or was hospitalized again later. Those whose records ended were:

William S. Allen (D). William H. Beeler (K).

D. Flanegan (F). Henry M. Hester (B).

E. E. Higginbottom (C) 8-31-64 A. J. Johnson (D).

William McGee (H). D. F. Omell (B).

R. W. Propps (B).

The officers who were exchanged included:

2nd Lt. A. C. Abernathy? (F). Capt. L. F. Carter (E).

1st Lt. George M. Clark (G). 2nd Lt. F. L. Coker (F).

2nd Lt. P. J. Coulter (I). 3rd Lt. William B. Cone (E).

Capt. Daniel C. Cowling (G). 2nd Lt. M. B. Cumby (C).

Capt. L. W. Delony (I). 2nd Lt. J. N. Elliott (K).

2nd Lt. James K. Ferguson (C). 1st Lt. J. C. Gibson, Jr. (H).

2nd Lt. P. R. Goolsby (B). 2nd Lt. John F. Gordon (E).

Lt. Col. Augusta S. Hutchinson. Maj. D. H. Hamiter. (Staff).

Capt. John S. Hankins (F). Capt. Harrison Herndon (K).

1st Lt. J. W. Hunter (D). 2nd Lt. J. T. Kent (I).

2nd Lt. Columbus Lee (B). 1st Lt. L. F. Latimer (B).

Capt. John W. Robinson (C). Capt. H. C. Smith, Qm.

2nd Lt. William W. Sorrels (H) 2nd Lt. J. D. Stewart (A).

Capt. William G. Stewart (A). 1st Lt. M. M. Stovall (F).

2nd Lt. Frank M. Thompson (G). 1st Lt. Anderson Welch (Staff).

2nd Lt. L. A. Williams (G). 2nd Lt. J. T. Woods (K).

The enlisted men who were exchanged included:

Henry Adams (H). Joseph Alexander (B). William S. Allen (D).
J. T. Anderson (I). William Anderson (E). John Apelin (K).
D. F. Arnold (B). James L. Baker (H). J. M. B. Baker (D).
Joseph L. Baldwin (I). Andrew Barnett (E). Thompson G. Bates (H).

Marada Beam (H). William H. Beeler (K). J. H. Beggs (B).
James A. Bell (C). J. T. Bennett (B).
Henry H. Bibb (F). Anthony Blackwell (H). James Blackwell (H).
Milton B. Blackwell (E). C. A. Blaylock (B). W. L. Brumblow (F).
Abraham Bolt (A). James Bolt (A). William A. Boyd (B).
Eli L. Bradley (G). J. W. Brasher (H). Wm H. Briggs (Sgt. Maj.).
Terrel Brothers (H). J. M. Brown (E). Samuel G. Brown (D).
G. E. Bryant (I). J. C. Bryce (D). William Burk (D).
B. F. Burns (I). N. D. Caldwell (I). James M. Caneda (F).
Pleasant Castilow (A). E. B. Carle (E). William Cassell (K).
John F. Champion (A). A. J. Chandler (H). R. F. Chastain (F).
W. W. Cherry (F). William T. Choate (D). William H. Clardy (I).
David S, Clark (G). C. C. Coble (K). John J. Coley (G).
T. H. Coley (G). R. J. Compton (G). A. J. Conatser (A).
D. A. Conatser (A). James Cooper (E). John N. Copeland (C).
William Covy (B). J. A. Craig (I). T. Y. Craig (I).
Samuel M. Dark (H). A. W. Davis (D). Barney Davis (K).
Benjamin F. Dean (C). Joseph Dean (K). A. J. Dennis (D).
James L. Dicks (K). W. H. Dixon (C). E. Dobbs (E).
Landy Drake (H). M. M. Draper (I). R. W. Drapes (B).
Robt. L. Duncan (D). Z. P. Edens (D). J. B. Edmonson (C).
J. J. Edwards (F). William H. Eastes (H). W. C. Ferguson (C).
D. Flanegan (F). A. E. Frizzell (H). M. C. Frizzell (H).
Francis C. Gaines (H). W. H. Garmon (A). John Garner (A).
William Gautney (K). J. T. Gentry (D). Andrew J. Gibson (F).
G. Gibson (G). J. R. Gibson (G). Thaddius Glass (H).
James P. Golden (A). P. B. Goshen (G). C. H. Green (G).
J. E. Green (H). J. P. Green (G). G. W. Green (B).
John H. Green (B). William H. Green (C). W. H. Gunn (G).
Carter Hall (H). J. C. Hall (H). Robert M. Hall (K).
Robert Hamilton (H). S. C. Hall (K). William B. Hall (K).
Alvin Hamilton (K). Thomas Hamilton (H). A. T. Hamiter (E).
J. M. Harder (B). William G. Harris (F). Washington Hardin (A).
C. C. Harlow (I). D. W. Hartsfield (I). J. M. Haynes (I).
James L. Hays (H). James M. Henderson (C). E. P. Hendricks (E).
Henry M. Hester (B). Thomas Hicks (K). E. E. Higginbottom (C).
Jeremiah Highfield (H). J. W. Highfield (A). Wm H. Highfield (H).
William H. Hilitt (H). L. C. Hill (H). James P. Hipp (A).
John T. Hipp (A). J. S. Hobson (D). E. P. Hogan (K).
William Holman (F). J. H. Holt (I). J. T. Holt (I).
John B. Hosa (G). Jacob Huddleston (A). James M. Huffman (A).
Isaac Hughes (H). J. A. Humphries (F). Harrison Hunt (H).
William Hunt (H). W. E. Hunter (D). J. H. Hutchinson (A).
Cyrus Jackson (G). Henry C. Jackson (G). Solomon Jackson (F).
William N. Jackson (G). B. P. Janes (B). W. J. Jetton (K).
A. J. Johnson (D). N. J. Johnston (E). Timothy Johnson (H).
C. W. Jones, Sr. (C). C. W. Jones, Jr. (C). James M. Jones (H).
J. E. Jones (I). J. J. Jones (D). W. H. Jordan (B).
William B. Keer (A). J. M. Keister (K). A. H. Kelley (C).
Joseph M. Kennedy (B). W. L. Kirby (F). David L. Ladd (F).
J. T. Lane (I). Milton A. Lane (I). W. R. Latimer (B).
B. T. W. C. Layne (E). T. B. Layne (E). G. W. Leak (I).


A. A. Leslie (I). H. R. Leslie (I). J. C. Leslie (I).

A. P. Ledbetter (H). Thomas M. Lee (B). G. W. Leeper (B)

J. Lemons (E). Larkin Louis(D). C. M. Lick (G).

Redding Lipsey. (E). Wm Litchford (I). Henry A. Logan (D).

J, H. Long (B). Thomas Long (H). James M. Looper (H).

M. A. Looper (H). R. A. Maddox (K). G. W. Malone (K).

Wiley Mangum (I). T. C. Maroon (C). G. F. May (B).

S. S. Maben (G). Charles A. Mayer (E). G. M. McBay (C).

James McCaleb (H). W. H. McClure (C). B. P. McCord (H).

D. K. McDonald (I). James McElroy (I). G. H. McElroy (I) 24th.

William McGee (H). J. A. McLaughton (A). Mark McMullen (E).

D. J. McWhortor (I). H. D. Medlock (C). Isaac Z. W. Meeks (A).

J. S. Merideth (K). Reid A. Meredith (K).Andrew J. Merrell (B).

James Merritt (D). W. E. Merrill (I). George W. Miles (E).

James R. Millard (H). William Mitchell (D). Elias Moad (H).

J. R. Morgan (E). J. R. Morgan #2 (E). William E. Morgan (E).

P. H. Moore (E). E. B. Murphree (H). J. M. Myrick (G).

Jonathan Neal (B). Thomas J. Neal (F). Quimby Nelson (B).

Wiley Nelson (F). J. P. Newburn (H). James M. Norwood (C).

Jacob Nugent (A). Washington Odell (I). L. W. Odom (F).

D. F. Omell (B). Russell L. Parker (B). B. J. Park (K).

Samuel H. Perrin (C). Z. T. Perrin (D). George W. Plunk (G).

Isaac F. Powell (H). R. W. Propps (B). F. E. Ralls (D).

C. C. Rankins (F). J. A. Rankins (F). Sidney Rankins (F).

Richard S. Ray (K). J. A. Redding (E). W. T. Redding (E).

F. Y. Reed (D). Henry A. Reed. (C). James L. Reed (I).

Thomas J. Richey (G). William H. Riley (A). James H. Rivers (B).

Obed Roberts (F). W. M. Robertson (C). Francis M. Rollins (A).

Bazil Rose (H). William Ross (G). Francis M. Sawyers (F).

James M. Scoggin (I). John Sawyers (F). W. G. Scoggin (G).

James W. Scott (G). Stephen Seth (E). Frank Shelton (E).

Peter Simpson (G). W. V. Simpson (A). Alex Smith (G).

C. T. Smith (F). Francis M. Smith (D). J. B. Smith (H).

John T. Smith (H). J. W. Smith (G). Martin C. Smith (B).

Joshua Snellgrove (A) Charles R. Snoddy (B). Reason Sorrels (B).

Daniel Stewart (H). F. B. Stewart (A). J. M. Stovall (F).

G. W. Sullivan (C). George Sumner (B). H. J. Sumner (B).

William Swipes (I). Wilson Tate (A). A. L. Taylor (E).

L. C. Taylor (G). W. L. Taylor (G). James Teavor (K).

T. J. Thompson (I). P. B. Tidwell (C). M. W. Tollett (G).

J. R. Z. Vaughn (I). Obediah Vaughn (H). Stephen Vaughn (H).

H. M. Vaught (D). James H. Venable (F). R. B. Venable (F).

James Vickry (K). A. J. Viney (I). R. W. Wainfield (A).

J. R. Wakley (D). Elisha Waldren (D). John Waldren (D).

Nathaniel Ward (F). C. R. Watson (C). J. H. Watson (C).

Lawrence Welch (K). Morgan West (D). R. M. White (F).

W. S. White (K). Rufus Whitman (G). E. D. Williams (D).

Fred Williams (B). F. B. Wilson (A). H. D. Wilson (A).

H. S. Wilson (I). John W. Wilson (A). J. P. Wilson (I).

Isaac Wingfield (A). Wm H. Wingfield (A) J. J. Whisenhunt (C).

A. J. Womack (C). William H. Womack (C). G. D. Wood. (B).

O. L. Wright (E). Robert Wright (H). William H. Wright (F).

Edmond Yandell (H). John Yandell (H). Wilson E. Yandell (H).
J. H. Yarborough (K) C. W. Yeates (C). James Young (D).
J. E. Young (E). Simeon McCown (I)

Boarding railroad cars May 11, the 19th headed southwest, travelling along
the Great Smokey Mountains chain, to join General Braxton Bragg's Army of
Tennessee. It was a beautiful time of year, bare tree limbs giving way to
bright green leaves and flowers. Farms along the way were in preparation
for a new growing season, and gardens emerging from bare soil. Men and
boys stopped work long enough to wave and shout encouragement as they
passed by. Stopping for night at Lynchburg, they continued at sunrise the
next day, through Bristol and Knoxville, Tenn. John Yandell (H) was left
in a hosp. here, dying of an abscess on May 16. Chattanooga was reached
May 16, and at 2 p. m. the next day they arrived at Tullahoma, marching to
camp, about 40 miles southeast of Nashville.

Of the 366 exchanged, as many as 58 either died, separated from the
regiment or left sick, about 308 men returned to service. Some 71 men had
been captured but could not be accounted. A few may of these were possibly
were exchanged later, likely no more than a dozen at best, making the
regimental strength about 320. Remaining at Tullahoma for a month, under
the command of Lt. Col. Augustus S. Hutchinson, they were attached to the
brigade of Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Churchill, as before. With other Ark. and
Texas troops, they were in the Div. of Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburn in
Hardee's Corps, a part of the Army of Tennessee under the command of Lt.
Gen. Braxton Bragg. With about 20 men more than the number listed below,
those from each company that can be verified about this time were:

Company A. 2 officers and 36 enlisted men, total 38.

Company B. 3 officers and 32 enlisted men, total 35.

Company C. 3 officers and 27 enlisted men, total 30.

Company D. 1 officer and 30 enlisted men. total 31.

Company E. 3 officers and 27 enlisted men, total 30.

Company F. 4 officers and 30 enlisted men, total 34.

Company G. 4 officers and 28 enlisted men, total 32.

Company H. 2 officers and 58 enlisted men, total 60.

Company I. 3 officers and 40 enlisted men, total 43.

Company K. 3 officers and 23 enlisted men, total 26.

Regt Staff. 4 officers and 1 enlisted man, total 5.

With the regimental strength about 1/3rd of what it should be, new men were
needed to bring it to a working level. So on May 23, 1863, the 19th Ark.
was consolidated with that portion of the 24th Arkansas that had also been
captured at Arkansas Post. These men had come through the same prison
experiences along with the 19th, suffering similar losses. This
consolidation was to endure until November, at which time the 24th was then
pulled and attached to another regiment. In addition, remnants of
Crawford's Battalion coming through captivity with similar losses, was
merged into the 19th. This was a permanent merger placing men in

various companies. Those men whose records did survive, along with one
man, A. J. Rumagie, who had become separated from some unknown unit, were
merged into the companies indicated below.

James Box (K). R. H. Boyett (H). J. F. Castleberry (H).
Ellison Edwards (H). A. N. Henderson (F). W. P. Henderson (F).
A. R. Loman (F). H. L. Parker (K). C. L. Reed (H).
C. L. Rice (K). A. J. Rumagie (F). J. T. Tucker (K).
R. A. Tucker (K). John A Voit (F). T. J. Wells (F).
J. L. Young (F).

Attitudes possessed by former Crawford's Bn. men could be
predicted. Having enlisted with a great deal of local pride to go and
serve with men they knew, under officers they had elected, was an
encouragement. But now, being released from prison, with their old unit
dissolved, it was stressful to be placed in a new unit under strange
officers. This action would be expected to have caused rejection in some
toward this new situation, and apparently was. A number of them seem to
have deserted soon after the consolidation, including James Box (K), C. L.
Rice (K), and J. T. Tucker (K). One report was that James Box died Feb.
12, 1863 while imprisoned at Camp Douglas, Ill. The first muster after
being reformed into the 19th-24th Arkansas Inf. was held on June 1,
1863. J. F. Castleberry's records has it on June 6.

At Tullahoma, Teamster assignments were made, showing that some field
equipment was issued here. Equipment to be carried on these wagons would
include extra arms and ammunition, tents, tools for building defenses,
kitchen equipment, etc. These men included Henry C. Jackson (G), who was
appointed Wagonmaster on May 20.

W. H. Dixon (C). W. E. Hunter (D). J. R. Morgan (E).
W. Odell (I). C. W. Yeates (C). H. C. Jackson (G).
Nathaniel Ward (F), 9-1 to 11-30-63. J. E. Young (E).

Numerous other changes in organization came about this time.

2nd Lt. James K. Ferguson, assigned as the Brigade Asst. Qm. May,
1863, continuing until he died at Marietta, Ga. June 26, 1864.

W. H. Gunn (G) transferred May 10 to the 47th Ark. Cav. in Arkansas.

Elias Moad (H) became 4th Sgt. May 7, and raised to 1st Sgt. June 1.

H. D. Medlock (C) appointed 1st Sgt. June 1.

James M. Norwood (C), was appointed 4th Sgt. on June 17.

Thomas J. Richey (G) was appointed 3rd Cpl. on 6-1.

Francis M. Rollins (A), detached on a special assignment June 23.

W. G. Scoggin (G) became 1st Sgt. on 6-1-63.

Alex Smith (G) became 1st Sgt. June 1. Being in the hospital at the time
and it appears that W. G. Scoggin (G) filled in for him.

Capt. H. C. Smith was relieved of duties as Quartermaster by Gen.
Bragg June 10, 1864, and it he was released to return to Arkansas.

Martin C. Smith (B) became 1st Cpl. on 6-17.

J. H. Watson (C), Brigade Blacksmith Shop, remained to 8-31-64.

J. J. Whisenhunt (C) was appointed Commissary Sgt. May 1.

G. D. Wood (B) was appointed Qm. Sgt. 6-17-63.

After two weeks of quietness in camp about 1 mile from Tullahoma, the
19-24th Ark. responded to the long drum roll May 25, marching out and form
a line of battle. The next day they were ordered back into camp, having
slept on their arms all night. This was likely a readiness drill, to test
the reflexes of the newly organized unit. On June 1, receiving orders to
cook two days rations, they prepare to march. Leaving about 8 a. m. the
next day the, regiment moved into camp at Wartrace, Tenn. where they begin
erecting extensive defensive positions. The new camp was about ten miles
north of Tullahoma, one mile from Wartrace. New orders were given for
three days rations to be prepared and kept in readiness. As soldiers in
all wars have found, the old game in the military is to hurry up and wait,
with extended periods of boredom between the times of hurry up. Gen.
Churchill was transferred back to the Trans-Mississippi Dept. June 24,
being replaced by Gen. James Deshler. After a General Inspection on June
13, probably to see off Gen. Churchill and to welcome Gen. Deshler as the
new brigade commander, the waiting continued until word was received on
June 24 that the enemy was coming. There was a skirmish at Hoover's Gap on
the following day, from which the Confederates fell back, and once again,
orders came to cook three days rations.

In answer to the drum beat at 4 P. M. on June 26, the regiment fell in and
marched to Bell Buckle, but was recalled the next day, back through
Wartrace, arriving at Tullahoma on the 28th. That night, and for 2 days
following, they were in prepared fortifications at Tullahoma. General
Hardee's Corps headquarters was located at Shelbyville at this time. Late
in June, the Union Army started a campaign designed to dislodge the
Confederates from their fortified positions in the Shelbyville and
Tullahoma area. Instead of marching down the main roads in the direction
of Shelbyville, into the face of these fortifications, the Union moved
around the Confederate Right. This enabled them to bypass the strength of
the enemy. It was a dangerous maneuver on the part of the Union Commander,
requiring close coordination to pass through a mountainous terrain, over
the back roads, without being trapped. By this movement, the Confederates
well planned defenses were no longer useful in preventing the enemy's
advance toward Chattanooga.

Abandoning their positions on July 1, Bragg moved his Army southward across
the Elk River in an effort to stay between the Union Army and Chattanooga,
a vital communications link and rail center for the Confederacy. The 19th
suffered its first loss to enemy action after being reformed about this
time, William H. Gautney (K) was captured July 3, 1863. It appears that he
had fallen out of the ranks during the long march from Tullihoma and was
captured at the Elk River crossing. Being transported to Nashville,
probably by rail, and on to Louisville by boat, he signed the oath on
September 12, and was released from imprisonment. His unit continued to
carry him as absent, sick, until August 14, 1864. After crossing the
Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Alabama, Bragg's Army took up defensive
positions around the area of Chattanooga. The design was to protect the
main line railroad that connected Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama
and Tennessee.

By July 6, the regiment arrived at a point 8 miles from Chattanooga,
camping for one day. The long marches had been interrupted only one time,
on the 4th, when firing could be heard in the rear. Moving the next day,
they arrived one mile from Lookout Station, where the men received a much
needed rest from the constant rain and hard marches. On July 9, the
regiment moved again, by rail, through Chattanooga, to Tyner's Station,
remaining here until the 13th. Relocating from here, they moved to
Graysville Station, remaining there until August 22. Falling in at 2 a.
m., they were moved to Harrison, Tenn. Maj. Gen. Daniel H. Hill had
temporarily replaced Gen. Hardee as Corps Commander, who was being sent on
an assignment to take care of prisoners recently exchanged from the
Vicksburg, Miss. surrender. Setting up headquarters at Tyner Station,
Tenn., a few miles east of Chattanooga, Hill's assignment was to block a
northern Union threat.
Cannon fire coming from the direction of Chattanooga could be heard all day
Aug. 23. Orders were renewed to keep three days rations ready. Word came
that the Federal Army was within two miles of the regiment's position the
next day, and the sound of rifle fire could be heard for the next three
days. One man from the brigade was killed while on picket duty on the
27th, as the Union Army probed for Bragg's main force. The regiment
returned from their skirmish line to camp and on the next day moved to the
mouth of Chickamauga Creek, arriving on the 29th, where they lay, expecting
a fight all the next day. Again, they moved to Harrison on the 31st, and
on the following day, after preparing three days rations, they waited some
more. The Regiment received orders to go to Tyner's Station Sept. 6,
arriving about 3 p. m., continuing on to Chattanooga. The following day
they started southward in the direction of Georgia, changing locations a
couple of times. These many changes in location is clear evidence that
Bragg was unclear where the enemy was located. By the 15th, however,
distinct preparations for an upcoming battle was commenced.

Several men reported sick to the hospitals during August, 1863, most
returned shortly after, but some did not return. Several died, and some
were hospitalized including:

1st Lt. Jeremiah C. Gibson (H) died Aug. 27, 1863 in the hospital at
Catoosa Springs, Ga. His personal effects were received by 2nd Lt. William
W. Sorrels, to be returned to his family. Most of the time after this
until February, 1865, Sorrels commanded Co. H.

J. H. Hutchinson (A), died at Chattanooga on August 4, 1863.

T. B. Layne (E), granted 50 day medical furlough from the hospital
at Union Point, Ga., Aug. 10, 1863, apparently never regained his
health, dying in Sept., 1864.

H. R. Leslie (I), became ill as he drove a team and wagon south from
Wartrace, was taken to Ringgold, Ga., died July 17, 1863.

Wiley Mangum (I), drew compensation pay for 60 days rations and was
furloughed medically on July 8, 1863. He died later.

James M. Norwood (C), died August 2, 1863, hospital at Chattanooga.

Washington Odell (I), died July 19, 1863.

W. V. Simpson (A), hospitalized August 13, died December 31, 1863.

W. H. Womack (C), died Aug. 15, 1863 at Cleveland, Tennessee.

Henry Adams (H), after extended sickness, discharged May 11, 1864.

Marada Beam, (H), hospital, Marietta, Ga., Sept. 10, 1863, became a
nurse, Oct. 1, 1863, returned to the Regiment, Nov. 1, 1863.

James A. Bell (I), hospitalized at Dalton, Ga. June 6, 1863 with
Dyspepsia. Discharged July 21, 1863.

James Bolt (A), Hospital Aug. 8, 1863, issued clothing Nov. 11, paid Dec.
2, Columbus, Ga. Present with the Co. Dec. 31, 1863.

J. J. Edwards (F), retired medically August 18, 1863.

James M. Huffman (A), hospitalized Aug. 18, 1863, records stop.

Isaac Hughes (H), hospitalized Aug. 1863, until died May 24, 1864.

Solomon Jackson (F), hospitalized at Dalton, Ga., Sept. 6, with

James M. Jones (H), hospitalized in August, 1863. He was furloughed from
the hospital and captured, signed the oath February 27, 1864.

J. C. Leslie (I), hospitalized Aug. 8, 1863, released for duty June,1864,
but may not have returned to the regiment.

William Litchford (I), hospitalized, Tunnel Hill, Ga., July 2, 1863,
Sent to the hospital in Rome, Ga., Aug. 26, 1863, furloughed, Jan. 8,
1864, AWOL after Feb 29, 1864.

Henry A. Logan (D), hospital, Dec. 31, 1863, returned to service.

James M. Looper (H), clothing issue at the hospital, Atlanta, Ga.,
July 20, 1863, preparation for returning to the Co.

T. C. Maroon (C), hospital after June 30, died at Ringgold, Ga.

G. F. May (B), hospitalized in August, 1863, his records stop here.

W. H. McClure (C), hospital, Dalton Ga., June 5, 1863, returned.

D. J. McWhortor (I), hospitalized September 7, 1863, Received pay in
the hospital Sept 18, 1863, returned to service.

J. S. Merideth (K), paid in hospital Sept. 19, 1864. Returned to Co.

Elias Moad (H), hospital, per Aug. 31, 1863, paid there Oct. 14,1863.

George W. Plunk (G), hospital July 2-18, 1863, Tunnel Hill, Ga.

C. L. Reed (H), recently from Crawford's Battalion, released for duty
from the hospital Aug. 18, was carried AWOL on the Aug. 31 muster.

F. Y. Reed (D), hospitalized, Tunnel Hill, Ga., July 1, 1863. Sent to
the Hospital, Rome, Ga. August 26, 1863. Returned to the Command.

John Sawyers (F), hospitalized July 1, 1863. his records stop here.

James H. Rivers (B), hospital, Sept. 23, 1863, to hospital, Macon,
Ga., Oct. 2, 1863.

Joshua Snellgrove (A), bothered with Chronic Bronchitis, did not
appear to serve with the unit very long after the exchange. Absent
in the hospital at White Oak, Va., returned to duty March 1, 1864,
hospitalized again and was still absent August 31, 1864.

J. M. Stovall (F), discharged August 1, 1863.

A. L. Taylor (E), hospital, Dalton, Ga. prior to Aug. 31, 1863,
furloughed Oct. 10, 1863, furlough extended later, died July 6, 1864.

James Teavor (K), hospital per Aug. 31, 1863 and April 30, 1864.
Returned to duty.

James Vickry (K), hospital at Dalton, Ga., Bronchitis, July 17, 1863.

Rufus Whitman (G), hospital, per June 30, 1863, paid while there on
July 22, 1863.

Desertions begin to appear about this time, including:

Terril Brothers (H), Aug. 27. James Blackwell (H), Aug. 27.

Wylie McClure (C), Aug. 28. J. P. Newburn (H), Aug. 27.

Bizell Rose (H), Aug. 27.

After making their way back to Ark., Blackwell, Brothers and Rose joined
the 2nd Kan. Cav., U. S., at Waldron, in Scott County. Switching sides
during the war, though infrequent, was not rare. To understand why one
would do this, we need to understand the home situation at the time. In
Scott County, Arkansas, the Union Army had successfully forced the
Confederates into the southern part of the State, and then retired back
north to Ft. Smith. That area between the two armies was left unoccupied,
at the mercy of roving bands of outlaws. Generally these groups, called
Bushwhackers, were made up of thugs, renegades from Indian Territory and
deserters from the service. Many stories have been told by descendants of
people living during those difficult days, of the citizens being robbed and
killed. Most men were gone to war, leaving the women, the elderly and the
younger members of their families unprotected and at the mercy of these
heartless men.

In one story, word spreading down Dutch Creek Valley of a band of outlaws
riding from the direction of Waldron, stopping at homes to pillage and
rob. Some men in the community, including Noah Dowell and Ransom Hunt,
determined to stop the outlaws. This group met the outlaws at a place
where the road turned sharply, 20 miles east of Waldron, just east of Blue
Ball. Foot and horseback travellers followed a path that "cut across" the
corner, having to climb a bank to do so. Apparently the Bushwhackers got
the drop on the others, and the shooting began. Hunt was killed, leaving
blood stains on a large rock that could be seen clearly for many years
after each rain. Dowell's mule was shot from under him and lost his
shotgun as he fell. Rolling under some low bushes, he hid in the twilight
of dusk. Years later, he recalled that if he hadn't lost his gun, he could
have shot some of the outlaws. After searching for survivors, finding
none, the outlaws then left.

In this same time frame, on the farm of William Hunt just west of Blue
Ball, the body of a man was discovered laying in a small grove of trees
near the house. Never identified, the body, possibly a bushwhacker who had
been wounded, was buried where it lay. Further down the creek in Macedonia
community, 5 miles west of Danville, Ichabode Herring spotted the outlaws
approaching. Mounted his mule he started riding for Dutch Creek. Crossing
Dutch Creek, he fell off and was shot as he scrambled up the bank. His
sisters took the body to Moss Creek Cemetery for burial. Noah Dowell's
father was reported to have kept large sums of money hidden at home. One
day the outlaws tried to get him to tell where he hid it, but he would not
tell. Being convinced that he did not have any money, the old man was told
that if he could outrun their bullets, he would be allowed to go, so the
old man started running, with his fingers in

his ears, because he didn't want to hear the gunfire. A few shots were
fired around him, no doubt as a gesture of fun, but he was allowed to escape.

As a result of this kind of activity, a number of citizens from Waldron
approached the Union Commander at Ft. Smith for protection. His response
was to raise a company of Cavalry from that community, and many men from
Scott County joined, to become part of the 2nd Kansas Cav., U. S., in an
effort to protect their families from these ravages. One nest of outlaws
were cleared out from the Chalybeat area about 10 miles west of Waldron,
not to be confused with the community of Chalybeat some 20 miles to the
east. It was this company of Union Cavalry that Blackwell, Brothers and
Rose joined. Scott County did furnish several men for the U. S. Forces
during the war, especially later when the 2nd Arkansas, U. S. was formed at
Ft. Smith. Still later, the 3rd Arkansas Cavalry formed at Lewisville,
Ark., with some men from Scott and Yell County joining it. Other former
members of the 19th Regt. joining the Kans. Cav. were Ambrose Blackwell
(H), Jerry C. Gibson (H), James Henslee (H), Elijah Roland (H) and William
L. Smith (E).

Back in the 19th Arkansas, other losses during this time were:

Francis C. Gaines (H), transferred, 3rd Engineering Corps August 3.

William Mitchell (D), detailed as a pioneer on September 1, 1863.

George W. Plunk (G), Transferred, Engineering Corps August 2, 1863.

Thomas H. Gill (I), Transferred to the 4th Engr. Corps, date unknown.

W. S. Riley (F), Transferred to 4th Engr. Corps, date unknown.

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