Don't let the notation "Deserted Nov 10, 1864" fool or upset you. In the Confederate army at that period there were several possible scenerios which could have been the reason for such a entry by the first Sargeant in his muster roll reports.
Usually this notation of "Deserted" simple meant that the first Sargeant did not know what happen as to why Robert disappeared. Simply that he was gone and there was no official military reason that the Sargeant knew of for the soldiers absence. I have seen records which listed a man as "deserted" when in fact he was taken prisoner, or killed in action.
Second even if Robert did desert there is nothing that says that he made the dangerous trip home to Yell County safely. There were many dangers for a man traveling alone on those roads in 1864/65. And who could blame a man for trying to go home to take care of his destitute family? Not all deaths of soldiers occurred as the results of a battle.
So all one can really say about Roberts records entry that shows him as deserted is that he wasn't with his company on that date.