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Re: 4th Georgia Cavalry
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Other than being listed in tables of organization, the only reference to the 4th Georgia in OR Vol. 31 is the following report by Gen. Martin.

George Martin

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXI/1 [S# 54] pp. 545-549

NOVEMBER 4-DECEMBER 23, 1863.--The Knoxville (Tennessee) Campaign.

No. 77. --Report of Maj. Gen. William T. Martin, C. S. Army, commanding Longstreet's cavalry.

January 8, 1864.

COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the services rendered by the cavalry divisions of Brigadier-Generals Armstrong and Morgan, under my command. That the condition of the command when it devolved upon me may be understood, I beg leave to call attention briefly to services rendered by it immediately preceding its moving to East Tennessee:

In August last, having had for the first time in twelve months a short period of rest, the command moved to the front and took an active part in the skirmishes and battle at and near Chickamauga, fighting dismounted, with or on the flanks of the infantry during the battles. Soon after, with the exception of the First and Sixth Georgia Regiments, it moved up the Tennessee River and crossed near Washington, fighting or marching with short intervals of rest for six days. After the destruction of several railroad bridges and stockades, and of 800 of the enemy's wagons and 2,000 mules and a large amount of stores, and the capture of 1,200 prisoners and many mules, horses, and stores, it recrossed the river at Courtland, Ala., and from thence through a desolated country marched to Kingston, Ga., and thence to Parker's Ford, on the Little Tennessee River. With orders to take two days' rations and no wagons, the command crossed the river, and making a night march attacked Maryville at daylight, capturing 200 prisoners and routing a brigade of cavalry.

The next day it was moved toward Knoxville, and after fighting till after dark ran the entire cavalry of the enemy (four strong brigades with artillery, outnumbering us two to one) into the intrenchments opposite Knoxville.

The second day afterward the command was marched to a point below Louisville, and crossing the river marched to Knoxville, when it reported to Lieutenant-General Longstreet.

A few days afterward, the First and Sixth Georgia having reported to me for duty, the command moved upon Kingston by a forced march and made an ineffective attempt to take that place. The strength of the position, the weight of metal of their artillery, and the steadiness of the enemy's force there foiled our efforts. Major-General Wheeler, under whose immediate orders the foregoing movements were made, placed me in command and left to report to General Bragg on November 24 last.

On the 24th, I moved the command to Knoxville, and it was engaged in picketing and skirmishing with the enemy in front of that place, suffering greatly for forage.

On the 26th, I moved Harrison's brigade, of Armstrong's division, and Russell's brigade, of Morgan's division, under command of Brigadier-General Morgan, across the Holston below Knoxville to participate in a demonstration upon the enemy's lines there. The men were dismounted and moved with the infantry on its left flank. Russell's brigade was warmly engaged, and drove the enemy from his rifle-pits upon the side of a difficult ridge. Col. Thomas Harrison, on the extreme left, found no enemy in his front.

On November 29, these two brigades recrossed the river, and by a forced march, made by order of Lieutenant-General Longstreet, I moved with part of my force toward Tazewell to meet a supposed advance of the enemy from that direction.

Reaching the vicinity of Maynardville in the afternoon of the 30th, I found General Jones' division skirmishing with the enemy. It was too late to attack. General Armstrong, with his division, was sent around to the right to reach the rear of the enemy before daylight. The remainder of my force moved at daylight on May-nardville, but the enemy had rapidly retreated soon after daylight, leaving a small picket, which was captured, Being joined by General Armstrong, his division was pushed toward Clinch River, while General Jones' command was sent to the right to endeavor to effect a lodgment between the enemy and the river. A force of the enemy prevented his success. General Armstrong pushed the enemy in front, and finally he was driven across the river, after being pursued for some miles through difficult gorges, made more difficult by a frozen stream.

I returned to Knoxville in obedience to orders, reaching there December 2. The army on the second night afterward, the siege of Knoxville being raised, commenced its retreat toward Rogersville. General Morgan's division followed, covering the rear of General McLaws' division on the south side of the Holston. General Armstrong's division performed the same service on the Knoxville and river roads. The infantry and artillery having passed Bean's Station, I was ordered to move to the south side of the Holston and cover the railroad and left flank.

On December 10, a brigade of the enemy's cavalry attacked General Morgan's division at Russellville, while the greater portion of it was foraging. The enemy was handsomely repulsed by one-third of its number, leaving dead, wounded, and prisoners in our hands.

In this affair the First and Sixth Georgia and Third Alabama Regiments were conspicuous for gallantry. Colonel Crews deserves mention for his skill and bravery on this occasion.

Lieutenant-General Longstreet having turned upon the enemy and attacked him at Bean's Station, I was ordered to cross the river and operate in his rear. While engaged in this movement, in order to cross the river it became necessary to dislodge the brigade of cavalry guarding May's Ford. This was done by a rapid fire of artillery from White's and Wiggins' batteries, of Morgan's division. The enemy lost 60 killed and wounded here.
Early next morning the enemy's pickets were driven in, and before I had entirely effected a crossing I was ordered to move upon the enemy's flank on the Knoxville road, 4 miles from Bean's Station. This was done immediately, and a high hill gained, from which my artillery could enfilade the enemy's breastworks. With great labor the guns were placed in position and rapidly and effectively served.

In the meantime, Morgan's division was dismounted and moved upon the enemy's flank. My guns were in sight of, and only 400 or 500 yards from, our infantry skirmishers, who it was expected would attack in front. My fire was continued for 1 hours, and the enemy began to retire, but was able to detach a large force to hold my men in check, as he was not pressed in front. With concert of action great damage could have been done the enemy on this day. Colonel Giltner, with his cavalry brigade, was on the side of Clinch Mountain on the enemy's left flank, and prepared to second any movement of our infantry. As no movement was made, I held my position.

The next day I moved down the Knoxville and river roads in front of the enemy, who had retired in the night, and after several unimportant skirmishes we found him in a strong position, on Richland Creek, holding both roads with a force too great for my cavalry to cope with in a country not at all suited for cavalry operations.

On December 22, the command returned across the Holston and established a picket line from near New Market to Dandridge. Colonel Russell's brigade was posted 4 miles east of Dandridge. Colonel Crews' half way from Morristown to Dandridge. General Armstrong's division was concentrated at Talbott's Depot, on the road leading from Morristown to New Market. Commanders of divisions were instructed to attack the enemy in flank or rear if he made an attack upon any of these three positions.

On the morning of the 24th, simultaneous attacks were made upon General Armstrong and upon Colonel Russell. After spirited skirmishing the former, being flanked and outnumbered, was compelled to withdraw his pickets from near New Market to the eastern side of Mossy Creek. An unexpected attack upon Colonel Russell was made by 2,000 cavalry under Colonel Campbell. Russell's brigade was for a moment in confusion, but rallied and repulsed the enemy, who fell back 2 miles toward Dandridge.

In the meantime, four regiments of Crews' brigade (in all 600 men) moved in the rear of the enemy. Two of the regiments being in advance made a spirited charge on the enemy and captured his battery of artillery. Support being too far off, the brave men who made the charge were driven from the guns, and Major Bale, commanding Sixth Georgia, was left dead in the midst of the battery. Two pieces of artillery and the two remaining regiments of the brigade coming up, and the whole command being dismounted, the enemy was pushed from one position to another, until finally routed he abandoned one gun and caisson, his dead and wounded, and under cover of night escaped capture. Colonel Russell's brigade should have moved up, but the courier sent with orders failed to reach him. He was watching the movements of 500 of the enemy, who were moving on Crews' right, trying to escape.
I have never witnessed greater gallantry than was displayed by Colonel Crews and the officers and men of the First, Second, Third, and Sixth Georgia Cavalry. The Fourth Georgia Cavalry was on detached service from this engagement at Kingston till December 30.

The enemy, mounted, three times charged our dismounted men in open field and were as often repulsed, but not until, mingling in our ranks, some of his men were brought to the ground by clubbed guns. The enemy was pursued without effect by Colonel Russell in the night to New Market.

On the 27th, I made an effort to dislodge the enemy from Mossy Creek, but desisted, as couriers with orders to General Morgan did not find him, and he without orders moved his command, dismounted, from the position I had assigned to him, and made it thus impossible to effect my object.

On the 29th, I engaged the enemy at 9 a.m. with all my guns and 2,000 men. The fighting occurred on both sides of the railroad leading from Mossy Creek to Morristown, and commenced one-quarter of a mile west of Talbott's Station and ended near the same place at dark. General Morgan's division was dismounted and formed on the left of railroad, General Armstrong on the right. The country from this station to Mossy Creek is composed of open, rolling fields that had been tilled during the past year, flanked by high woodland on each side. I could not maneuver the artillery, except near the railroad. Armstrong's division, with the artillery, was moved rapidly upon the enemy to engage his attention, while I hoped to flank him with Morgan's division on his right. His rapid retreat enabled him to avoid this, and both divisions finally were moved at double-quick and drove the enemy rapidly and in confusion back to Mossy Creek. Up to this time the force opposing us was not greater than 4,000 men, with two batteries. Owing to the nature of the ground Crews' brigade had been thrown to the right of the railroad, and General Armstrong, with Crews' brigade, was ordered to move up his artillery to within canister range and to charge some woods in his front and that of Colonel Crews.

Colonel Russell's brigade had its right resting on the railroad and his left on the woods. Immediately in his front the enemy had occupied some barns and outhouses. I ordered him to dislodge him. The whole line moved forward. The enemy was driven from his position on our left, but by a charge of cavalry upon our right and of a brigade of infantry upon Crews' brigade and Armstrong's left, we were compelled to yield the ground. The enemy fixed bayonets and moved into the open field to charge the Georgians and two howitzers some 200 yards in his front. Perceiving this I wheeled the Seventh Alabama Regiment to the right and moved it into a cut of the railroad, securing a good position within 50 yards of the flank of the advancing infantry. The fire from this regiment and a counter-charge by the Georgians soon drove the enemy into and through the woods, with heavy loss in killed and wounded.
At this time the enemy made three cavalry charges upon Russell's left and produced some confusion for a moment. Assisted by the officers I was enabled to rally the men under a heavy fire from the cavalry and the enemy's artillery. For a short time all firing ceased, except from the artillery. Upon reconnoitering the enemy's position preparatory to another attack, I found him strongly posted in my front and overlapping my line on both flanks with three brigades of cavalry, six regiments of infantry, and three batteries of artillery in position to sweep the open fields in my front. On the opposite side of the creek in full view, was a reserve of cavalry and infantry. A fresh brigade of cavalry was coming in from the Dandridge road in full view.

My artillery had exhausted the supply of ammunition, except canister. The division commanders reported an average of only five rounds of ammunition for small-arms. The Third Arkansas, a gallant little regiment, had fired the last round in its cartridge boxes, and had been ordered to the rear. The men had been fighting steadily without relief for seven hours. To advance was impossible, and to mount and retire on the open fields in daylight before so large a force with such a preponderance of mounted men would, I knew, be difficult. It could only be accomplished by the utmost steadiness. The retreat, under a heavy fire of artillery and small-arms, was effected in perfect order, the regiments falling back in succession to advantageous points, and then fighting until, having checked the enemy' sufficiently, they could gain another point of vantage.

While officers and men deserve great credit for their gallantry in the advance, their conduct during this difficult and hazardous movement to the rear entitles them to the highest praise. The enemy's bugles often sounded the charge. At first the charge was made, but not a second one. At dusk, after nine hours of severe fighting and marching, the command was halted and formed, and the enemy finally repulsed. There was not then an average of 1 round of ammunition to the man.

No action has taken place since the 29th; only slight skirmishes have occurred.

I would mention Brigadier-Generals Armstrong and Morgan, and Colonels Crews and Harrison, commanding brigades, and Colonel Thompson, Third Georgia, and Colonel Malone for gallantry on the 29th.

Captain Huggins, Lieutenants Pue and Blake, all of the artillery, deserve special mention. It is difficult, however, to distinguish. The officers and men vied with each other in the discharge of their duties.

I cannot omit to mention a most gallant charge made by the Eighth Texas Regiment (the Rangers).

I would call attention to remarks of the division and brigade commanders upon the destitute condition of their men. Their representations are not colored. A very large proportion of my men, and even officers, are ragged and barefooted, without blankets or overcoats. Owing to the want of attention to the duties of his office, the quartermaster of General Wheeler's corps left my command in great need of clothing. We have drawn none for fall or winter. A very large number of my horses are unshod. The men have received no pay for six months. The extremely cold weather has made it almost impossible for me to move. I refer to the reports* of Generals Armstrong and Morgan and Colonels Harrison, Biffle, and Crews for further particulars.
A tabular statement(*) of casualties is hereto appended.

The activity of the cavalry and multiplicity of its marches since I took command of it will furnish an excuse for the length of this report.

Respectfully submitted.

Major-General, Commanding.

Assistant Adjutant-General, Longstreet's Corps.

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