James W. Throckmorton
Although a Unionist, he joined the Confederate Army when war came, and was eventually brigadier general in charge of troops guarding the Texas frontier, and confederate commissioner to the Indians. After serving as president of the Constitutional Convention of 1866, Throckmorton defeated E.M. Pease in the race for governor, taking office in August 1866.
Accomplishments: When presidential reconstruction gave way to congressional reconstruction in March 1867, Throckmorton and the U.S. military differed: he disagreed with their deployment of troops in the interior rather than on the frontier; and they accused him of failing to punish crimes against blacks and Unionists. In July General Philip Sheridan removed Throckmorton from the governorship as "an impediment to reconstruction." E.M. Pease was appointed in his place.
Elisha M. Pease
When General Philip Sheridan removed Throckmorton, he appointed Pease as provisional governor. Sheridan's successor, General Winfield Scott Hancock did not provide the full military support Pease needed (since he ruled by order of Congress and the Army and against the will of the people) to impose a provisional government on Texas, with the result that civilian control waned. Pease urged the Constitutional Convention of 1868-1869 to accept radical reconstruction so that Texas could normalize relations with the Union as soon as possible.
Edmund J. Davis
In 1862, Davis left the state to avoid conscription in the Confederate Army and organized a Union cavalry regiment. He was honorably discharged as a brigadier general when the Civil War ended. As a radical Republican, Davis took part in the Constitutional Conventions of 1866 and 1868-1869.
The 1869 gubernatorial election was one of the most turbulent and controversial in Texas history. Favoritism by the military for candidate Davis over A.J. Hamilton caused Governor E.M. Pease to resign September 30. General J.J. Reynolds ordered the drawing up of a new voter registration list, eliminating many of those who had qualified in 1867. Troops stationed at the polls probably prevented many Democrats from voting: only about half of the registered white voters actually cast a ballot, and many polling places were either not opened, or ordered closed. Irregularities were reported but never investigated, and official returns reported that Davis won by slightly more than 800 votes.