A book by Michael Lind mentioned in previous posts has a chapter on the era from 1864 to 1963. During this century states comprising New England, the northern seaboard and the old Northwest territory dominated American politics, commerce, industry and culture. The terms "national" and "American" usually referred to those states during that period. Restrictions on non-white minorities were applied both at the national and state level during that period.
In other words, under the law certain people could be indentured, apprenticed or otherwise controlled by someone else.