"The Act for the Government and Protection of Indians" passed in the California legislature 1850. Gave the right to whites to own Indian children. This law was amended on April 18, 1860, giving power to indenture Indians for "apprenticeship" to county or district judges. These servants were not of legal age until their 25th birthday. Both acts of 1850 and 1860 were repealed on April 27, 1863, but according to newspaper accounts, Indian slavery continued openly up until 1865 or later. Some Indian families, whole, were part of land property and were sold as part of estates. The census of Indentured Indians of California, list Date of Indenture, Name, sex, age of persons indentured, indentured to, period of indenture in years, and indentured to what age.
The Other Californians, Prejudice and Discrimination under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920, by Robert F. Heizer and Alan F. Almquist.