I would recommend a series of books titled "Ordeal of the Union" by Allen Nevins, originally printed by Charles Scribner's and Son, New York and London, copyrighted in 1947 and reprinted in 1975. It is an 8 volume set. Volume 1, is titled "Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847 -1852". 593 pages, This would be a good place to start.
In the days of old when history was actually taught in schools, the idea of Manifest Destiny was taught as being a very big part of early america's developement. The addition of slaves states, the expansion of slavery to the territories and the counter argument of the anti-slavery debates were rooted very much in this "Manifest Destiny" ideal, because that debate repersented a control and powers struggle.
I believe that the Manifest Destiny phylosophy may be what you are looking for.