The subject of your post concerns the Bill of Rights and its relation to citizenship, the benefits of U.S. citizenship as opposed to state citizenship.
Prior to the 14th Ammendment, many states held that the Bill of Rights and other Constitutional guarantees applied only to the U.S. government. For instance, the State of Connecticut held that it was not bound to observe the Constitutional prohibition against double jeopardy. Connecticut tried Frank Palko for first-degree murder and convicted him of a lesser charge. The state then appealed, retried Palko for the same crime, for which he was convicted. The Supreme Court upheld his conviction in Palko v. Connecticut, 1937, and Palko was executed in the gas chamber. Citing the 14th Ammendment, the Court overturned the Palko decision in 1969.
If interested, read my post on the doctrine of incorporation.