Dawson’s 19th Arkansas Infantry
Merrrill T. Pence (1994)
Recognition of everyone that has contributed to this work cannot be given, due to the failure of an old man's memory in the passing of time. Many historians, librarians, archivists and such have been leaned upon, most have been extremely helpful in the search for answers and additional material. In time, more materials may be found that could have been included, but time has come to put this work into a more permanent form or stand the risk of its being lost in some obscure attic unpublished.
For the permission to include information from the Journal of David J. McWhortor, and for other valuable assistance, Mrs. Mary Nell James, a Confederate Great Grand Daughter, must be recognized. Others assisting in the research of this document has been Jim Dark, Larry Bert Johnson, Gwen Tuel, Jesse Suttles, Mary Elizabeth Sanders and Dewitt Yingling. Stories from my late Grandfather, Benjamin Harrison Hunt not only captivated me in my youth, but continue even today. His son, Basil, and my mother, Clauzell have continued to serve, especially as a sounding board when questions arise. Lucille Westbrook, Archivist, Southwest Arkansas Regional Archives has been a constant encouragement and faithful contributor. Her interest is phenomenal. After the volume was printed, I received from Mike Morris copies of three letters, dated April 25, August 26 and September 23, 1862, from Hugh A. Brothers of Co H, to his wife, Martha A. J. Brothers. These have been quiet helpful as well.
Last of all, without the encouragement, forbearance and forgiveness of
my sweet wife of almost forty three years, these efforts would have been futile indeed.
Merrill T. Pence,
THE 19TH ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT VOL'S., CSA, (DAWSON'S).
Chapter 1. Forerunners of Dawsons Regiment. p 5.
Chapter 2. Turbulent Times, the Die is Cast. p 9.
Chapter 3. "Bad Cooking and Bad Weather." p 17.
Chapter 4. The March of Nine Hundred Miles Ends. p 22.
Chapter 5. "The White Flag Was Never Displayed." p 31.
Chapter 6. The Aftermath of Captivity. p 36.
Chapter 7. Richmond and Reorganization. p 43.
Chapter 8. Chickamauga and Following Days. p 55.
Chapter 9. Resaca to Atlanta, the Unravelling. p 66.
Chapter 10. Franklin, Nashville, Last Days in the East. p 76.
Chapter 11. The Trans-Mississippi Dept. p 85.
Prologue. p 93.
The Regimental Roster Indexed. p 94.
Index of others. p 178.
Addenda. p 181.
SOURCES AND RECOMMENDED READING.
Microfilm #317, reels 161 through 166 from The National Archives, Washington D. C. Records of (Dawson's) 19th Arkansas Infantry.
Microfilm, Confederate Prisoners who died in U. S. Prison Camps. From the National Archives, Washington D. C.
Official Records, U. S. Govt. Printing Office.
Biographical and Historical Memoirs, of Southern Ark., Goodspeed Pub.,1890.
Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography, Appleton, 1900.
The Hutchinson Family of Laurens Co. South Carolina, 1947.
The History of Howard County, Arkansas.
Military West of the Mississippi River.
Arkansas and the Civil War, John L. Ferguson, Pioneer Publishing Co. No Copyrite.
Civil War on the Border, Vol. I, Britton.
The Civil War in Louisiana, John D. Winters, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 1963.
Pea Ridge, Civil War in the West, William L. Shea and Earl J. Hess, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and London.
An Account of the Battle of Wilson's Creek, or Oak Hills, Holcomb and Adams, Springfield Mo., 1883.
The Battle of Arkansas Post, Edwin C. Bearss, Ark. Historical Quarterly., 1959.
Advance and Retreat, Gen. John Bell Hood, Burk & M'Petridge, 1880
Narrative of Military Operations, Joseph E. Johnston, Appleton.
Life of William Tecumseh Sherman, Johnson, Edgewood Pub. Co. 1875
Life of General U. S. Grant, Remlap, F. D. Jones & Co. 1885.
Life and Services of General John A. Logan, Dawson. 1887.
Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Vol. 1-4, Castle, reprint of 1887.
Journals and Personal Accounts.
Journal of D. J. McWhortor, unpublished. Used by permission.
Letters from Three Confederate Soldier Brothers, The Genie, Ark-La-Tex Genealogical Assn, Shreveport, La., 1991-1993.
The De Queen Bee, Newspaper, De Queen, Ark. 4 Issues, 1909 - 1916.
Triditional, Family Stories.
Hidden in musty old archives and attics across this land for over a century, have been stored references and records of the 19th Arkansas Infantry Regiment, Volunteers, CSA. Uncovering those treasured secrets has been a labor of love for 50 years. The present generation has been subjected to the same stories of the Civil War, written and rewritten, until it would seem that there are no new discoveries available to be found. True, we do consult new works that surface, and they do rehash the same material over and over again, some of which are well written and scholarly presented. It is also true that there are materials yet to be found which will enables today's world to possess a better insight in the facts and events of that most remarkable era. This work is an effort to tell the story of the 19th Arkansas Regiment as it has been gleaned largely, but not exclusively, from their own records.
Admittedly, the accomplishment represented a monumental task, dealing with nearly 1,300 names in numerous entries, often with multiple spellings. It is expected that a certain amount of error will have crept into the text, for which we apologize. No apology is offered, however, for the work itself. It must be remembered that these records were made under the most adverse of times, while the unit was in the field in all kinds of weather, moving from place to place with regularity. Their mission was not to keep a journal of their activities, but to fight a war, and for this they often laid aside the pen for prolonged periods. The names of the men in the regiment were often written as they sounded, with frequent variations of spelling being entered. Few men were literate, most signed their names with an x when it was required. Likewise, the records are not found in a neat orderly fashion in chronological order, which had to be dealt with before a journal of their activities could be arranged.
Our objective is that this work will serve as a springboard from which additions, corrections and modifications may be made by the reader in their own research. Our firm hope is that we have dealt accurately and fairly with all, trying to relay the facts as they appear, with an attempt to do as little editorializing as possible. It would not be possible to name all the research that has gone into this effort. Many years ago, we started with an interest in the Civil War because so many of our ancestors served in both the Union and Confederate Forces, from numerous states in the south. At that time, we were ill equipped to do much more than read and make notes. Many of these notes were retained, whose authors have been long since forgotten. As time passed, the pathway before us became better defined, and the sources were dug out one by one. Some of the most interesting materials are those treasured family stories that have been handed down to each new generation, some of which we have shared as they fit into the text.
Originally written, November 11, 1991, revised December 4, 1993. 1st edition, May 31, 1994, Revised, June 8, 1994. Merrill T.Pence.
CHAPTER 8. CHICKAMAUGA AND FOLLOWING DAYS.
The call to greatness is often missed, going unanswered by those who otherwise possess the raw talents to excel. How many times in life, do we wish to go back and start the day anew, but alas, that moment in time has closed. One special day in the history of this country was Sept. 19, 1863. It started as any other early fall day in northwest Georgia. The hot days of summer were gone, leaving a faint crispness in the air. A thin low fog lay in the valleys, waiting for the morning sun's warmth to melt it away. This day, however, was not destined to be ordinary. Before the shades of night fell on the following day, some 35,000 casualties would occur here. For days, two armies had been shifting around, attempting to locate the strength and weakness of the other, to establish a maximum effective position for themselves.
About Sept. 1, the Union Army had crossed the corner of Alabama into Georgia at a safe distance south of Chattanooga, forcing the Rebels to adjust their defenses. Leaving Harrison, Tenn. on the 6th, the 19th Ark., a part of Cleburn's Division, passed through Tyner's Station about 3 p. m. Continuing on to Chattanooga, they spent the night, marching south to Lafayette, Ga. the next day, arriving on the 8th. Their assignment was to guard against a flanking movement, coming through Catlett's, Dug or Bluebird Passes in Pigeon Mountain. Guarding the Confederate Left on Sept. 15, they retraced their march ten miles back to the north. The Confederate line was located on the east side of Chickamauga Creek, a Cherokee word for "River of Death". Arriving Sept. 18, the regiment lost Martin C. Smith (B), captured, likely on picket duty. Sept. 19th, the great battle of the west, Chickamauga, was started.
Not involved initially, Cleburn's Division moved across the rear of the entire Confederate line on the 19th, from left to right, through all the congested roads filled with marching men and wagons, arriving late in the day. The sun had gone down by the time they arrived in position, but there was still enough daylight left to press the retreating foe about half a mile. The curtain had risen on Scene One of the drama that day, but the 19th had seen action only in its lingering hours. As they rested on their arms that night, Breckenridge's Division was moved to their right in preparation for the following day.
About 9:30 the next morning, the sound of thunder was heard, the voice of the cannon, followed by the rattle of thousands of muskets. With hearts pounding and faces quivering, the cream of the south marched bravely across the field in the face of northern entrenchments, leaving the dead and dying where they fell. Breckenridge's Division, on the extreme right, started forward, and in 15 minute intervals, progressing to the left, other units marched forward, Cleburn's Division starting immediately after Breckenridge. Cleburn, with the 19th Ark., marched directly into the strength of the Union breastworks. Hill's Corps, numbering
less than 9,000, were thrown against the Union 14th Corps under George A. Thomas, numbering about 20,000. Following their Color Sgt., William H. Green, the 19th Arkansas was in the forefront of this action, for which they later received a General Commendation from the commander of the Confederate forces in Georgia.
This vicious part of the battle lasted about an hour, pressing Thomas so severely, he called for reinforcements from the Union right. Cleburn withdrew his troops behind a low hill, about 400 yards in the rear. His work was exceedingly well done., units from the Union right were dispatched to Thomas' aid, weakening that flank, The Confederate Left drove forward with tremendous success. Some Union units quit the field and fled toward Chattanooga, those remaining united with Thomas and were formed in a horse shoe position. Later in the afternoon, Cleburn rushed forward, this time with success in taking the first line of enemy breastworks. (See the Addenda, p181).
The fierce attack was matched only by the dogged determination and sheer military genius of Gen. George H. Thomas. His coolness under fire had kept the Union forces from a total collapse. Under cover of darkness, he made somewhat of an orderly retreat toward Chattanooga, and the Battle of Chickamauga was over. For his heroic stand, Thomas became known as the "Rock of Chickamauga". In this, the bloodiest two days fought in the entire war, about 35,000 casualties were claimed, with Confederates running about 1,000 higher than the Union. Bragg appeared to have a mindset before the battle that he would lose, perhaps because some of his Lieutenants didn't get into position as fast as he felt they should. He seemed not to believe he had won so great a victory, and initially would not allow his troops to pursue the enemy to pick up stragglers and fleeing groups of men.
True, when an enemy is on the run, they may still have a lot of fight in them, but not nearly so much as when given time to regroup and dig in. Perhaps Bragg made a mistake in this. The carnage littering the field after the battle was great, and some of the Confederate Army spent the next few days, largely, combing the field, gathering arms, treating the wounded and burying the dead. The effect this battle had on that little community is little understood. What procedure should be followed in burying thousands of bodies and the disposal of dead animals? Worse still, how could thousands of wounded men, many severely, requiring amputations and special treatment be cared for adequately? No doubt, many wounded men whose lives could have been saved, lay on the field for days, waiting helplessly and hopelessly for care to be administered, and eventually died where they lay.
The 19th Arkansas had suffered 96 known casualties at Chickamauga, with 8 killed outright and another 8 dying of wounds soon after, 80 more were wounded and one captured. Martin C. Smith (B) had been captured on the 18th. Among the wounded, J. R. Millard died December 21, William Cassell on November 19 and Z. P. Edens lingered until March 29, 1864, so we have counted them amoung those killed. Those known to have died were:
William Anderson (E) C. A. Blaylock (B) James Caneda (F)
William Cassell (K) Z. P. Edens (D) Thaddius Glass (H)
James P. Golden (A) Joseph Kennedy (B) L. F. Latimer (B)
J. Lemons (E) C. M. Lick (G) J. R. Millard (H)
Frank Shelton (E) Alex Smith (G) Wilson Tate (A)
Stephen Vaughn (H)
When the battle was over, the 19th Ark. counted 88 men wounded, some not requiring hospitalization other than administering field dressings. Only the severely wounded, 57 total, were included as such. Col. Hutchinson's report (p181) stated of the 226 men in the regt.,only 8 were killed and 97 wounded. Some of the wounded may not have returned following hospitalization, including:
Joseph Alexander (B), absent through Aug. 31, 1864, in the hospital.
W. S. Allen (D), hospital furlough Sept. 28, 1863, records stop.
D. F. Arnold (B), retired to the Invalid Corps Oct. 6, 1864.
J. M. Brown (E), hospital furlough Sept. 28, 1863, records stop.
Pleasant Castilow (A), wounded at Chickamauga, hospital furlough,
returned to Arkansas, and was carried as a deserter Dec.15, 1863.
E. Dobbs (E), later detailed to care for the government flocks.
A. E. Frizzell (H), later detailed a courier and Medical Purveyor.
James L. Hays (H), discharged April 4, 1864, returned to Invalid Corps March 20, 1865, took the oath at Chattanooga June 15, 1865.
J. M. Henderson (C), discharged November 28, 1863.
J. T. Holt (I), hospital furlough September 28, 1863.
W. R. Latimer, wounded September 20, 1863.
Isaac Meeks (A), medical furlough Oct. 31, 1863, captured on the
Caddo River in Arkansas March 28, 1864, sent to prison at Rock
Island, Ill., died there of Cerebral Effusion Aug. 22, 1864.
W. E. Merrell (I), hospital furloughed Sept. 28, 1863. Drew
uniforms Sept. 29, 1863 at Selma Ala.
Samuel Perrin (C), in the hospital, March 12, 1864, Madison, Ga..
R. A. Tucker (H), wounded, right leg.
H. M. Vaught (D), hospital, Dalton, Ga. July 28, 1863. later, he was in the hospital from wounds, per the Dec. 31, 1863 muster.
James Vickry (K), wounded, left hip.
John A. Voit (F), thigh wound, hospital furlough Sept. 28, readmitted
Dec. 1, 1863, readmitted again Dec. 7, 1863.
J. R. Wakley (D), wounded right side.
T. J. Wells (F), severe wound, right leg, retired to Invalid Corps
Aug. 11, 1864, paroled by Union Forces May 25, 1865, Memphis, Tenn.
H. S. Wilson (I), wound l. arm, retired, Invalid Corps, Aug.11, 1865.
William H. Wright (F), hospital, Rome, Ga. per June 30, 1863,
also Aug. 31, 1863. Returned to the Command.
The Invalid Corps was made up of men no longer able to fulfill service in the field due to a service connected disability. These men may have lost an arm or leg, so serving in this corps, herding cattle, guiding wounded to hospitals, etc., would free an able bodied man for service in the ranks. Some of the wounded were known to have eventually return to join their comrades in the ranks, including:
Thompson Bates (H) W. H. Beeler (K) J. T. Bennett (B)
Pleasant Castilow (A) George M. Clark (G) John J. Coley (G)
A. J. Conatser (A) P. J. Coulter (I) A. W. Davis (D)
L. W. Delony (I) J. L. Dicks (K) Landy Drake (H)
Robert Duncan (D) Ellison Edwards (H) A. J. Gibson (F)
John Gordon (E) R. M. Hall (K) Thomas Hamilton (H)
John S. Hankins (F) Harrison Herndon (K) E. P. Hogan (K)
John B. Hosa (G) Jacob Huddleston (A) J. A. Humphries (F)
W. J. Kinard (H) G. M. McBay (C) James Merritt (D)
A. J. Rader (H) John W. Robinson (C) Francis Sawyer (F)
W. G. Stewart (A) George Sumner (B) H. J. Sumner (B)
R. B. Venable (F) James Vickry (K) J. R. Wakley (D)
C. R. Watson (C) T. R. Watson (C) W. S. White (K)
E. D. Williams (D) Frederick Williams (B)
For their brave and heroic action in the Battle of Chickamauga, the 19th Arkansas was named to the Confederate Roll of Honor, with one man from each company being named as the actual recipient. This belated award, according to General Order 64/2, was given August 10, 1864. No medal was received, however the names of the recipients were referred to newspapers across the south. Those included were:
Jacob Nugent (A) G. W. Green (B) C. W. Jones (C)
J. B. Floyd (D) James T. Cooper (E) W. Holman (F)
Peter Simpson (G) Thaddius Glass (H) T. J. Thompson (I)
W. S. White (K)
Previous to the Battle of Chickamauga, while the command was still in Tennessee, Gen. Churchill had been returned to Arkansas to take command of a Division in the Trans-Mississippi Department. His
replacement was Gen. James Deshler, a proven fighter, by his record at the battle of Arkansas Post. Deshler was killed at Chickamauga, along with 51 others in his Brigade, with 366 wounded. The brigade command fell on Col. D. C. Govan after Deshler's death. Chickamauga seemed to be the turning point in the morale of the troops in the Army of Tennessee. They were never able to recover it to a level it had been. Men dedicated to the cause were present, yet something had been lost, keeping them from and defeating the foe.
The Confederates, with the 19th Ark. included, left the battlefield Sept. 21 in pursuit of the retreating Federals, reaching Missionary Ridge the following day. Forming a defensive line, the Union Army was pressed hard against the Tennessee River at Chattanooga, with no route of escape or supply. Bragg felt content to block any provisions from being brought in, to starve them out. Along the Confederate line, breastworks were erected, with men serving on picket duty every other day. In spite of the blockade, a few supplies were successfully trickled in by boat down the river, until an opening was broken through around Lookout Mountain. Picket and cannon fire was common almost every day. At last, other Union Army units arrived from the west, with the intent to not only raise the siege, but to bring the Confederate Army under attack. Cleburn's Headquarters was located at Byrd's Mill, southeast of Chattanooga, just across Missionary Ridge from the Union positions. This would be about ten miles around the mountain, some five miles northeast of Rossville, Ga. The 19th was on line in the area of the Tunnel, where the railroad passed through a cut in the mountain.
The Brigade was pulled from the line and moved to a reserve point three miles behind Liddell's Brigade on Nov. 13, 1864. Two days later, a reorganization of the brigade took place, some of the regiments were consolidated and various companies combined. The 24th Ark. was removed from its attachment to the 19th and combined the 2nd and 15th Arkansas. The 8th Arkansas was then united with the 19th, to form the 8th - 19th Arkansas, which organization was to remain in place until the middle of April, 1865. However, it appears that these two units maintained separate unit structures inside the newly reorganized regiment, as apparently the 24th had done. When the 24th Regiment was withdrawn, 2nd Lt. W. J. Kinard and Capt. A. J. Radar, both wounded at Chickamauga, along with enlisted men J. D. and H. George (D), orginally from the 24th, went with it. Two other men, A. J. Cooley (D), on Oct. 31, 1863, and F. E. Ralls (D), on Feb. 1, 1964, transferred to the 24th and 8th Regt's. respectively. The ten companies of the 19th were then reorganized by combining them into five as follows:
Company A merged with B. Company C merged with H.
Company D merged with K. Company E merged with F.
Company I merged with G.
Marching to Chickamauga Station on Nov. 22, 1863, the newly reorganized regiment was ordered to prepare 4 days supply of
rations. On the following day, heavy cannon fire could be heard at the line, so the 19th was ordered to the right flank on the 24th. New Union Forces, recently arrived in the area, attacked the Confederate positions at 9 a. m. on the 25th, across the valley and on Missionary Ridge, with the firing continuing until dark. The 19th Ark. was able to repel Sherman's forces consecutively. That night, it became apparent that Bragg could no longer hold his position, so he withdrew southeast toward Chickamauga Depot. The 19th fell back to Chickamauga Station, marching down the Dalton Road at 3 P.M. on the 26th. Casualty reports for the Battle of Chattanooga were 5,800 Federals and 6,700 Confederates, which included 2,000 captured.
Govan's brigade (see note, p65) was assigned to rear guard duties in this move, and sporadic action continued as the federals advanced through Chickamauga Station and Graysville. By sunrise on the 27th, the 19th had arrived at Ringgold, with the enemy close behind. The Confederate army had to pass through a narrow pass in the mountains, called Ringgold pass, which had to be held until all had passed through. Govan's brigade formed a semi-circle around the mouth of the pass. The assignment of the 19th appeared to be to hold a bridge at that place until all the Confederates made it safely across. Col. Hutchinson sent all the horses and equipment that could be spared to the rear, so as to not endanger such, nor incumber the unit from a fast escape if needed. Sgt. Maj. Briggs was directed by Hutchinson to take his horse to the rear for safekeeping, but Briggs protested this assignment, not wanting to miss the battle. Briggs, a close personal friend of Hutchinson, obeyed the order, but reminded him of his displeasure in missing the action on the following day.
Action at the bridge started about 8 A. M. and lasted until noon with the Union Forces being driven back and held until everyone had passed. The next day, falling back to Tunnel Hill, Ga., they dug in. The weather had turned cold and, as was common during the Civil War, major activity stopped during the winter months. The 19th remained on line through the rest of that winter. Four casualties were taken by the 19th on November 27 at Ringgold, Ga., including: (see p181).
William H. Clardy (I) killed. Henry C. Jackson (G) wounded.
Obed Roberts (F) wounded Stephen Seth (E) wounded.
Jackson was furloughed from the hospital Dec. 31, 1863 and appeared to have not returned to his unit. He was carried AWOL through 8-31-64, but had drawn clothing in May and June of 1864, apparently from the hospital. Roberts died Dec. 16, 1863 and Seth was later returned to service. On Feb. 29, 1864, the Confederate Congress issued a citation to Cleburn, his officers and men for their fine action at Ringgold.
One item of interest surrounds 2nd Lt. William B. Cone. On Dec. 3, 1863, he was selected to deliver an important prisoner from Atlanta, Georgia to Richmond, Virginia, the round trip taking 12 days to complete. This action appeared to have great seriousness about it.
The prisoner is not named, but was likely some high ranking Union officer captured by the Confederates. Christmas passed uneventful, and in the language of one soldier, "everybody got drunk".
A major change came in January, 1864, Gen. Bragg was replaced by Lt. Gen. Joseph Johnston, a popular commander, very concerned for the troops. He inspected the camps on Jan. 25, finding a dispirited army, badly in need of clothing, some even without shoes. That day, the men reenlisted and the officers were sworn also. Their enlistment had been for one year, but all enlistments were extended to three years, or for the duration of the war. Three years would not be completed until the fall of 1864, and the war was still in progress. Furloughs were to be granted, the first for many of the men since enlistment, but to be furloughed, one had to reenlist, and could not be gone over 30 days. Every 7th man, plus 1 officer in each Co., being selected by lots, could be gone at a given time. On Jan. 28, General Hindman, recently returned from Arkansas into a new assignment, made a stirring speech. Orders came down to be ready to fall in on a moments notice. Enemy campfires could be seen in the evening, a constant reminder that the war was not far away. In spite of being in the presence of a superior enemy force, they were expected to maintain a strict military posture. A brigade drill and review was held on Feb. 6, followed by Gen. Johnston's review on Feb. 9.
Among those granted furloughs were Thomas Kent (I), furloughed for 16 days on January 13, returning on the 27th. A. J. Chandler was furloughed per the Feb. 29 muster. Lt. J. D. Stewart was granted leave Feb. 8, and returned later. L. C. Taylor (G) received pay on Feb.15, and on the 17th, along with a number of men, received a furlough to Arkansas and return. Nathaniel Ward received a 60 day furlough March 5, and returned afterward. Some men didn't bother to return, keeping others in camp from being furloughed. Those from the 19th who did not appear to have returned were:
William H. Beeler (H) W. H. Garmon (A) B. P. Janes (B)
G. W. Leak (I) Capt. John Robinson (C) W. G. Scoggin (G)
L. C. Taylor (G) A. J. Womack (C).
Janes was later captured by Union Forces in Arkansas, being imprisoned at Little Rock April 1, 1865. Capt. Robinson, commanding Company C - H left on furlough Feb. 1, 1864, returning to Arkansas. Having not returned, he was charged with desertion on February 15, 1864, and the following letter was placed in his file:
Hq. 8 & 19 Ark., April 4, 1864. Sir, In pursuance of an Act of
Congress established in G. O. 22 A & IGO, 1864, I respectfully ask
that the following named officer be discharged from the service for
being `Absent without Leave'. Capt. J. W. Robinson, Co. C, 19th Ark. Inf. This officer received a leave of absence from Army Hq. for 15 days from Feb. 1, '64, but has failed to report to his command at the expiration of his leave, and has now been absent
without leave for 50 days. He is supposed to be somewhere in the State of Arkansas. Very Respectfully, G. F. Baucum, Col. Comdg. Col. Kenlock Falconer, A. A. G.
Lt. Col. Augustus S. Hutchinson continued to serve as commander of the 19th Arkansas from May 8, 1863 until going on sick leave Dec. 18, 1863, perhaps longer. About Feb. 1864, Col. George F. Bacum, formerly commander of the 8th Arkansas, returned from his wounds suffered at Chickamauga, to take command of the 8th - 19th Arkansas. With all the losses suffered since Chuckamauga, the regiment found itself with a disproportion in the ratio of officers to enlisted men. Consequently, several officers were declared "Supernumerary", and returned to serve in Arkansas. Most of these had been wounded or sick, being unable physically to endure the rigors of life in the field. Among these were:
2nd Lt. P. J. Coulter (I), wounded, right hip, Sept. 19, 1863, duty
resumed May 1, 1864, declared Supernumerary on Dec. 31, 1863.
Captain L. W. Delony (I), wounded Sept. 20, declared Supernumerary in
the reorganization of Nov. 14. Received leave Jan. 1, 1964. Went to
Richmond, Va. Feb. 2, returned on the 18th, transferred to Arkansas.
Captain Robert L. Duncan (D), wounded Sept. 20, 1863, returned to
Arkansas Feb. 13, 1864 to Gen. Drayton's command at Camden.
2nd Lt. P. R. Goolsby (B), sick in the June 30, 1863 muster, returned
to service. Transferred to Arkansas Aug. 31, 1863.
2nd Lt. Frank M. Thompson (G), hospitalized Aug. 31, 1863, resigned
Jan. 2, 1864, returned to Arkansas to report to the service there.
2nd Lt. L. A. Williams (G), Brigade Provost Duty Dec., 1863, Provost
Guards were broken up Jan. 21, transferred to Arkansas Feb. 13, 1864.
The soldier has many enemies when in a theater of operations, and he has to fight each one of them. Besides the Union Army, who was never very far away, he had to fight others, such as fatigue, hunger, discomfort, and the ever present discouragement caused by being away from home and his family. His life consisted of fatigue from days of marching to another location, followed by hours of backbreaking work in constructing defensive positions and moments of sheer terror when the shooting starts. Then all this would start over again. The ever present hunger was never far away, and was often satisfied on hardtack bread and bacon, and for variety, perhaps peas and corn or sweet potatoes, sometimes taken from some farmers fields nearby. Times were when his day would be interrupted to dig a grave in the rain for a lifelong friend, and hurry back to his place in the unit. In moments of quietness, his thoughts turned home to the warmth of the hearthstone and his mothers sweet potato pie, or perhaps of some girl who didn't know if he was still alive. Following Chickamauga, desertions became more frequent, including the following:
Eli Bradley (G), Jan. 25, 1864 W. H. Dixon (C) Oct. 29, 1963
Henry M. Hester (B) 11-29-1863 William Highfield (H) Nov. 25,1863
William Hilitt (H) 11-25-1863 C. W. Jones, Sr. (C) Dec 21, 1863
W. L. Kirby (F) Mar 28, 1864 David L. Ladd (F) Feb. 13, 1864
James McCaleb (H) Feb. 29, 1864 G. M. McBay (C) Feb. 29, 1864
Elijah Murphree (H) Feb. 29, 1864 Peter Simpson (G) Jan. 21, 1864
C. W. Yeates (C) Jan., 1864 J. L. Young (F) April 2, 1864
From the above list, William Highfield and William Hilitt both appeared to have surrendered and took the oath while in prison at Rock Island, Ill., Highfield on Oct. 11, 1864. Hilitt was released from prison Dec. 8, 1863. Highfield attempted to join the 5th U. S. Infantry, but was turned down by the Mustering Officer. After the war, he returned to his wife in the Dutch Creek Valley, east of Waldron, Arkansas, and raised a family. C. W. Jones, Sr. had been detailed as a blacksmith for an artillery unit Nov. 11, 1863, from which he deserted about a month later. David Ladd surrendered and took the oath Feb. 14, 1864 at Chattanooga. James McCaleb and Elijah Murphree appeared to have surrendered together and took the oath the same day they deserted. C. W. Yeates returned to Ark., taking the oath in Little Rock Dec. 30, 1864. Discouragement was running at its highest level since the regiment was formed.
Several men were hospitalized in this time period, some may not have returned to their units, including:
F. L. Coker (F), hospital furloughed March, 1864.
J. R. Gibson (G), hospitalized Feb., 28, 1864, record ends.
John Jones (D), Nurse in the hospital, Newman, Ga., Oct. 31, 1863.,
William Litchford, (I), furloughed Jan. 8, 1864.
Elijah B. Murphree (H), hospital, per Aug. 31, 1863 and Feb. 29,
1864. Captured, exchanged May 8, 1864, to Richmond, Va.
James H. Rivers (B) hospital furloughed Oct. 17, 1863, captured in
Alabama April 17, 1864, prison at Camp Morton, Indiana, signed the
oath, was released Feb. 24, 1865.
Francis Rollins (A), hospitalized Dec. 31, 1863, record ends.
A. J. Rumagie (F), hospitalized Nov. 20, 1863, record ends.
Charles R. Snoddy (B), hospital, per Feb. 29 and April 30, 1864, but returned later.
M. W. Tollett (G), 30 day hospital furloughed Nov. 8, 1863, returned to the Command.
H. M. Vaught (D), Hospital, furloughed April 30, 1864.
James H. Venable (F), hospital 12-10-63, To the hospital in LaGrange,
Ga. Dec. 31, 1863. Died Jan. 64.
C. R. Watson (C), hospitalized Nov. 6, 1863, record ends.
Quimby Nelson (B), not shown present after April 30, 1864.
W. T. Redding (F), not shown as present after May 1, 1864.
H. J. Sumner (B), not shown as present after April 30, 1864.
Deaths during this period included: (C. C. Coble was buried in the Confederate Cemetery at Marietta, Georgia.)
John Apelin (K) May 28, 1864 David S. Clark (G) Dec. 24, 1863
J. F. Castleberry (H) Dec. 27, 1863 C. C. Coble (K) March 10, 1864
A. J. Dennis (D), July 24, 1864 James K. Ferguson (C) June 26,64
C. C. Harlow (I) Feb. 14, 1864 Jeremiah Highfield (H) Nov. 18, 1863
N. J. Johnston (E) Apr. 13, 1864 Milton A. Lane (I) Jan. 11, 1864
M. M. Stovall (F) Nov. 19, 1863 A. L. Taylor (E) July 6, 1864
James H. Venable (F) Jan. 1864
One of the most puzzling questions found in researching the records of some individual soldier is the presence of another soldier's records mixed into his. Such may have been the case of W. M. Robertson (C). After being exchanged following the Camp Douglas imprisonment, his name drops out of the records, but maybe not altogether. There was a W. M. Robertson found in South Carolina in Dec., 1863, whose job appeared to be collecting spent horses from units in the field and delivering fresh ones in their place. Often, men being sent back to their units after a hospital stay, would travel with these men making such deliveries. With Robertson was a number of such men on this occasion, among whom was J. E. Jones (I) and D. M. Watson (C). The records of J. E. Jones had also ended with the exchanged, and D. M. Watson was shown to have died of Smallpox at Camp Douglas. Perhaps these were different men with the same names.
Other names that appeared after being separated from the regiment. E. P. Hogan (K) had been wounded in the chest, right thigh and left hand at Chickamauga, furloughed from the hospital in December, and carried AWOL on the February 29 roll. He appeared in the records as having returned and was placed on special detail on April 29, 1864. The case of 2nd Lt. Columbus Lee is interesting. Apparently he had held strong feelings in favor of the Confederacy and was breveted 2nd Lt. in September, 1862. He returned from captivity with the regiment and served until he was granted furlough March 14, 1864. Not long after his return to duty, he offered his resignation, stating that he "preferred the ranks to his present position and circumstances." The resignation was granted May 6, 1864. Those men found to be no longer physically able to perform the duties of a soldier were given a medical discharge. One such case is listed below of a soldier being discharged "by command of Gen. Johnston."
Certificate of disability for discharge, Henry Adams, Private of
Captain J. H. Robinson's Company of he 19th Regiment of the
Confederate States, was enlisted by Captain Featherston of the 19th
Regiment of Ark. Vol's. at Waldron, Ark. on the 27 day of June, 1862 to serve 3 years. He was born in 1838 in the state of Kentucky, is twenty six years of age, 5 feet 10 inches high, fair complexion, gray eyes, dark hair, and by occupation when he enlisted, a farmer. During the last 2 months, the said soldier has been unfit for duty. The disease, which the said soldier is now laboring under, made its appearance while he was a prisoner at Camp Douglas on or about the 1st of Feb., 1863. Dalton, Ga., May 11, 1864. William W. Sorrels, Lt., Comdg. Co. C & H, 19th Ark. Inf.
I certify that I have carefully examined the said Henry Adams of
Captain Robinson's Company, and think him incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of organic disease of the heart, with Ascites, I therefore recommend he be discharged. Geo. T. Erwin, Asst. Surg. in charge of 8th and 19th Ark. Inf.
Note: There has been some confusion as to which brigade the 8th-19th Ark. was assigned after the reorganization on Nov. 15, 1863. B. J. Park (K), wrote his sister on Dec. 5th, giving his address as Co. K, 19th Ark., Liddell's Brig., Cleburn's Div. Yet, in another letter dated Feb. 4, 1864, he gave his address as Govan's Brigade. Govan's Brigade was assigned rear action duties in the retreat from Missionary Ridge, the 19th Ark., a part of this assignment, saw action at Ringgold Gap on Nov. 27.
CHAPTER 9. RESACA TO ATLANTA, THE UNRAVELLING
As a rule, winters were spent at a reduced rate of operations by both armies throughout the war. In Northern Georgia, both armies were content to pass the unusually cold winter of 1863-64 in comparative idleness. Having spent the winter stationed at Tunnel Hill, Ga., the 19th Ark. saw a renewal of activities with the coming of spring. In preparation for commencing further military operations after this lull, on May 5, 1964, the records of the officers were updated, along with an accounting of the enlisted men present. A statement is made in the regimental records that:
"There are 62 officers and 233 enlisted men in this army."
By deducting those known to have been discharged, deserted, died or transferred, from the exchange until May 5, 1864, there should have been about this number present. This would include those from the 19th Ark. and Crawford's Bn., but none from the 8th Ark. Of course, some shown to have deserted may have come back, and some whose records ended earlier may have died or deserted. Even so, there would have been an equal amount of each. The records show some 363 men from the 19th Arkansas were exchanged, including 32 officers, with 128 confirmed losses to this time. By this accounting, there should have been 235 present, which gives us assurance that the records being kept in the east were fairly complete. The high number of officers mentioned is puzzling though. There were a possible 23 present, at this time, having lost 8 since the exchange. Perhaps the 62 officers shown was including those from the 8th Ark., which was larger than the 19th. It would be correct then to say that there were 233 enlisted men and 62 officers present on May 5, 1864, if 23 officers were from the 19th and 39 from the 8th Arkansas.
When Spring arrived, the 19th Arkansas was again part of an army facing hostile forces on its immediate front. To the soldier, to exist in the field was simply stay alive. The duty of the soldier is simple. Whatever the weather, the task or the hardship, he must (1) do his duty and (2) stay alive. By May 13, Cleburn's Division was pulled from its position on Mill Creek, and was placed in the center of the line at Resaca. The Union Army, now under the command of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, kept a constant pressure on the Confederate Left through May, forcing Johnston to withdraw to new positions. Thus, the line shifted from Dalton, to Resaca, Cassville and Allatoona. Johnston was keenly aware that Sherman would like nothing better than to march uncontested into Atlanta.
Sherman continued to probe on his left near Dallas, Georgia, facing Cleburn's Division, who intercepting his advance on May 25-28. Here battles were fought, called New Hope Church on May 25 and Robert's Store and Picketts Mill on May 27. At Pickett's Mill, the 8th-19th Arkansas was sent at double time to assist Granbury's Texas brigade, who were being hard pressed. In a charge, Union forces were forced back across the corn field, and into the woods from which they had
launched their attack. Cleburn's report stated the Union suffered about 3,000 casualties, and that he had captured over 1,200 smallarms. The 19th Arkansas, being heavily engaged in this action, suffering several casualties. Some 19 men were recorded as lost between May 2 and 27, with 13 of them on the 27th. This reduced the regiment to 214 men. Casualties during this time included:
R. H. Boyett (H), killed on May 2, 1864. (Mill Creek?)
Joseph Dean (K), captured May 5, 1864, (Mill Creek?), paroled at
Alton, Ill. June 16, 1865.
Joseph Baldwin (I), captured May 16 near Resaca, confined at Alton,
Ill., arriving May 23.
Charles Mayer (E), captured May 19 (20th?), 1864 near Cassville, Ga., sent to Nashville, Tenn., to Louisville, Ky., arrived May 27 at Rock Island, Ill., exchanged March 6, 1865.
Stephen Seth (E), killed May 24, 1864, New Hope Church.
O. L. Wright (E), killed May 24, 1864, New Hope Church.
Nathaniel Ward (F), wounded, captured at Robert's Store. Two dates were found, May 22 and 27, 1864. After his capture, Ward was admitted to the hospital in Chattanooga, Tenn. on June 16 with a simple flesh wound in the neck and left hip, caused by an exploding cannon ball. With his wounds dressed, he was transported to Nashville June 19, to Louisville, Ky., arriving at Camp Douglas, Ill. July 28, 1864, where he died of Anemia on January 29, 1865.
Those casualties on May 27, 1864 at Pickett's Mill included:
J. R. Bryant (I), killed. James L. Dicks (K), killed.
William B. Hall (K), killed. J. J. Jones (D), killed.
J. T. Kent (I), wounded. S. S. Maben (G), wounded.
James McElroy (I), wounded. Elias Moad (H), killed.
J. R. Morgan (E), killed. M. W. Tollett (G), wounded.
James M. Scoggin (I), killed. James Vickry (K), killed.
Sherman's superior numbers and supplies kept a constant pressure on Johnston, forcing him backward from one defensive position to another. Setting up defenses behind natural and erected barriers, Johnston was able to inflict greater casualties than he received. Action continued through Big Shanty on June 3, to Brush Mountain, and Kennesaw Mountain, where Johnston had erected extensive defensive positions. Skirmishes were almost a daily affair, as Sherman probed for the strength and weakness of the Confederate line. These probes built in intensity until the Union attacked in strength June 27, 1864. With the temperature near 100 degrees, Sherman sent a division against each flank. The attack on his left was to keep those troops in place, the other flank was the target.
It appears that Sherman made a costly error here, sending troops against such well fortified positions. Perhaps he thought they would fold, as they had done at Arkansas Post, these being many of the same troops captured there. The 19th Arkansas, part of Cleburn's Division, occupied the trenches in the left center at Kennesaw Mountain, when 8,000 Federal troops charged the line. A combination of the cannons blasting and the muskets rattling blended together into a terrific roar. The stifling hot weather, the smell of gunpowder and the noise of battle, along with the anxiety of danger would in time leave the troops exhausted. Being finally repulsed with great loss, the Union Troops had almost reached the Confederate line before being turned away. Total Union losses were 3,000, many of them suffered in front of Cleburn's Division, while Confederate losses were 1,000. Several men deserted at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain. It is as though they got tired of killing so many men.
On July 2, according to one report, the field between the opposing forces was covered with a thick layer of tall grass, in which many Union troops had fallen dead and wounded. Lt. Col. W. H. Martin, of the 1st Ark Regt., called for a truce after the grass caught fire, to allow the Union troops to recover their dead and wounded. Rebel troops assisted in this humanitarian act, but after it was done, the flag was removed and they resumed killing each other. Drawing back and regrouping, once again Sherman returned to his usual tactics of going around Johnston's flanks. Pushing toward Atlanta, he forced Johnston to fall back once more, this time to positions near the Chattahoochie River. When Sherman wisely crossed the river around the Confederate right, Johnston had to cross, setting up defenses, with his back to Atlanta, at Peach Tree Creek. Losses during this part of the campaign to the 19th Arkansas were:
J. H. Holt (I), hospital furloughed June, 1864. No further record.
S. C. Hall (K), died June 18, 1864, Gilmer Hospital at Marietta, Ga.
M. C. Frizzell (H), wounded June 20. When he was released from the
hospital on September 10, he was issued a pair of pants, drawers and
a shirt, being "destitute and going to the front."
2nd Lt. J. N. Elliott (K), wounded June 27, hospitalized and returned
to the unit after August 31, 1864.
C. C. Rankins (F), wounded June 27, hospitalized, returned to duty.
S. S. Maben (G), wounded June 30, 1864, hospitalized. Record ends
W. C. Ferguson (I), wounded June 30 (July 2 ?), died in the hospital.
J. C. Bryce (D), died, Gilmer Hospital at Marietta on June 31, 1864.
W. H. Doss (C), deserted July 1, signed the oath at Little Rock, Ark.
August 31, 1864.
Andrew J. Merrell (B), deserted and surrendered July 3 at Kennesaw
Mountain. Sent to Nashville, Louisville, arrived in Camp Douglas,
Ill. July 18. Signed the oath June 16, 1865, he was released to
return to Hempstead County, Arkansas.
Frederick Williams (B), deserted and surrendered at Kennesaw Mountain July 3, 1864, sent to Nashville, Louisville, arrived at Camp Douglas, Ill. July 18. Joined Co. F, 6th Regt. U. S. Inf. March 26, 1865.
John T. Smith (H), deserted, surrendered July 3, 1864 at Kennesaw
Mountain. Sent to Nashville, Louisville, arrived at Camp Douglas,
Ill. July 14, 1864. Took the oath March 24, 1865 and enlisted in Co. F, 6th U. S. Cav., from which he deserted March 27, 1866.
Charles R. Snoddy (B), deserted, captured July 3, 1864 at Kennesaw
Mountain, sent to Nashville, Louisville, arrived at Camp Douglas,
Ill. July 18. Applied for the oath August 31, died of Scurvy Nov.
23, 1864. Buried in Block 2, City Cemetery, Chicago, Ill.
Lawrence Welch (K) wound to the right knee, by a cannon shell at Big Shanty, Ga., and captured July 5, 1864, admitted General Hospital, Nashville, Tenn. Sent to Louisville, arrived at Camp Douglas, Ill. July 28, took the oath and released June 7, 1865.
George W. Sumner (B), entered Ocmulgee hospital, Macon, Ga. July 7,
1864, with Multiple Contusions ? Transferred to Scrivner Co, Ga.
July 8. Returned to the regiment later.
Harrison Hunt (H) captured July 7, 1864 near Atlanta. Exchanged
Sept. 20 and returned to the regiment.
Losing Nashville was a difficult loss, losing Chattanooga even greater. But to save Atlanta was absolutely necessary. Tennessee had furnished a large part of the horses, mules, pork, corn and wheat so essential to the war. Georgia had 1,400 miles of railroad and Atlanta was the main hub. The Confederacy received supplies and produce from the large plantations south and east of that city. Johnston had not been able to stop the onrushing Union Army. It matters not that he was terribly outmanned, with fewer guns and supplies. He had fought in a retrograde posture, choosing a defensive battle, which would be less costly in lives, while infliction greater punishment. But however many casualties he inflicted, an ever growing number of fresh Union troops took their places. His losses were irreplaceable, no matter how many fewer they were. He was in a lose - lose situation.
The Confederate Army was shocked when Johnston was relieved of command July 17, 1864, being replaced by Gen. John Bell Hood, one of the Corps commanders. Hood, who hailed from Texas, had one arm useless from a wound suffered at Gettysburg, and one leg amputated near the hip from a wound at Chickamauga. He should have been
retired from field activity long before, but his heart was at the front. As a div. commander, he had displayed brilliance, but some have speculated that he was now raised above his abilities. He believed in hard and fighting, never giving much thought to danger. Coming into command, Hood fully understood that he was expected to stop and destroy the enemy threatening Atlanta, whatever the cost.
Gen. Hood waited for the enemy in the prepared defensive positions at Peach Tree Creek. At the precise moment, when the Union Forces were crossing the creek on July 20, Hood rushed from his positions, launching a furious assault upon the oncoming hoard. Not being successful in destroying them, he retired again to the trenches. The next day, Cleburn's Division was pulled from the right and sent to Bald Hill, on the east side of Atlanta, to assist the corps there. Confederate troops had been compelled to evacuate from that location. In what should have been a brilliant move, Hardee moved his corps around the Union Left at Bald Hill, and was successful in arriving undetected for a flanking attack on July 22, while Hood's former Corps launched an attack straight on. This attack also proved largely unsuccessful, however the 19th was able to take the enemy's breastworks and hold them. On the next day, Confederate troops turned these works around to be effective in the opposite direction. In this action, Lt. Col. Hutchinson was twice wounded and taken to the hospital. Col. Baucum, being wounded in the face, was sent home to preform recruiting duties. Major Hamiter assumed command of the 8th-19th Ark., continued in this role until at least January, 1865.
Activity on the north and northeast side of Atlanta became relatively quiet for the next few days, with mostly constant picket firing. On the 25th, the sounds of battle could be heard from across town, two days later the 19th Ark., with much of Hood's Army move to the south side of the city, becoming involved in the skirmishing on the 28th. To counter Sherman's movements, Hood once again he went on the offensive, launched an attack against the Union Army in the Battle of Ezra Church that day. Heavy cannon fire was brought against the Confederate positions on the 30th, as some Union troops left to raid along the Macon Railroad in the rear of the Southern Troops. Major General George Stoneman, a Union Cavalry Officer, along with 500 troops were captured at Clinton, Ga. on July 31, 1864. His design was to raid Macon and Andersonville, freeing the prisoners being held in the Confederate prison at that place.
The front had been relatively quiet on July 29, allowing the 19th to be pulled back into the reserves on August 3. That afternoon, heavy picket firing occurred on the left and center of the line and continued next morning. Relaxing in a reserve position was enjoyed but a short time however, because the 19th Ark. Reg. was sent again to the left of the line on the 7th for a short time. From here, they were shifted to support of Clayton Davis as heavy cannon fire continued. On the following night, they returning to the left of the line and started building defensive positions on the 9th, continuing this work for two days. The heaviest firing came from the right on
the 11th, 13th and 16th. With heavy cannon fire on Aug. 18, Union Forces attack the brigades of Loring and Davis, being repulsed three times. That evening, it appeared they were preparing to advance against Cleburn. Confederate cannon on the 19th answered a cannon attack on the right, and one observer reported a successful hit on a Union Limber chest, a box mounted on wheels in which ammunition for cannons is hauled, causing quiet an explosion.
The Confederate lines were now decimated, having suffered about 13,000 casualties (see note p75), and still Atlanta could not be held. Losses suffered by the 19th Ark. in the Battles around Atlanta included:
Those who died:
A. C. Abernathy (F) killed July 24 M. B. Cumby (C) died Aug. 8
J. T. Gentry (D) died Aug. 2 Cyrus Jackson (G) killed July 22.
Those wounded or absent in the hospital as of Aug. 31:
Marada Beam (H), wounded, admitted to the Ocmulgee Hospital at Macon, Ga. July 22.
James Bolt (A), Hospitalized prior to Aug. 31, 1864 at Ft. Valley,
Ga., where he received an issue of clothing Nov. 3, 1864, which
usually preceded being released for service. The J. A. Boalk, 17th
Ark., buried here on Nov, 3, 1864 may have been him, since the 17th
Ark. was not believed to have been in this theater.
William A. Boyd (B) absent, sick August 31.
G. E. Bryant (I) absent, in the hospital August 31.
George M. Clark (G), hospitalized August 8 from wounds, still absent Sept. 19, paid Sept. 1 in the hospital at Ft. Gaines, Ga.
T. H. Coley (G), wounded Aug. 8, hospitalized.
R. J. Compton (G), hospitalized in Aug., 1864.
T. Y. Craig (I) sick in the hospital on Aug. 31.
J. W. Garner, paid in hosp., Columbia, S. C., July 29, 1864.
C. H. Green (G), wounded July 22, sent to the hospital.
E. E. Higginbottom (C), absent in the hospital Aug. 31.
Lt. Col. A. S. Hutchinson, wounded July 22, shot entered left arm, 4 inches above the elbow, exiting near it, wounded in the foot. Hospitalized, Macon, Ga. July 24, transferred Aug. 7, 1864 to Hempstead Co., Ark. In Arkansas, he served in the recruiting
service. When the war ended, he was escorting a group of recruits
through Mississippi, bound to rejoin the regiment.
William B. Keer (A), hospitalized August 8, 1864 in Columbus, Ga.,
where he remained through November 30.
James A. McLaughlin (A), sick in the hospital August 31, captured at
Claybourn, Miss. Sept. 30, 1864. Sent to Camp Douglas, Ill., to
Cairo, Ill. January 1, 1865, apparently being exchanged later.
Henry A. Reed (C), absent in the hospital, August 31, admitted to St.
Mary's Hospital, Montgomery, Ala. Oct. 14, 1864, until Nov. 15, 1864.
James L. Reed (I), wounded, hospitalized July 22, to Jackson, Miss.
Hospital Sept. 9, 1864, furlough Oct. 14, 1864. Paroled May 5, 1865.
C. T. Smith (F), wounded, hospitalized July 22, received clothing
issue at the hospital Sept. 19, 1864, apparently being released.
Lt. J. D. Stewart (A), wounded, hospital July 22 to Sept. 19, 1864.
Subscribed pay for Pvt. J. W. Garner July 29, hosp., Columbia, S. C.
Obediah Vaughn (H), wounded, hospital furlough, prior Aug. 31, 1864.
Elisha Waldren (D), AWOL Aug. 31, 1864, retired to the Invalid Corps
Nov. 4, 1864.
W. S. White (K), hospital per the 8-31-64 muster.
William H. Wingfield (A), hospital, per 8-31-64.
Those Captured in the battles for Atlanta:
John B. Hosa (G), July 22.
Thomas J. Richey (G), deserted, surrendered July 22, to Nashville, to
Louisville, arriving Camp Chase, Ohio Aug. 5. Signed the oath March
15, to Camp Douglas, Ill., enlisted in the U. S. Army March 6, 1865.
Rufus Whitman (G), deserted, surrendered July 22, sent to Nashville,
Louisville, arriving Camp Chase, Ohio Aug. 5., to Point Lookout, Md.
for exchange Feb. 22, 1865, to the hospital at Camp Lee, Virginia.
Payday was not a regular occurrence in the life of the 19th Ark., yet the musters for pay purposes continued, one on April 30, followed by one on August 31, 1864. All entries in the records after this time were mostly hospital, prison and exchange records. One such record is interesting, that of John Garner (A), who received pay on July 29, 1864 at Columbia, S. C., his company commander, J. D. Stewart, subscribing for identification purposes. Stewart had been wounded at Atlanta, and it is thought Garner was also. This payday was likely made while they were in the hospital.
Those listed as being present on August 31, 1864, included:
J. H. Beggs (G) J. T. Bennett (B) Wm H. Briggs Sgt Maj
Samuel Brown (D) W. L. Brumblow (F) A. J. Chandler (H)
Landy Drake (H) J. P. Green (G) John T. Hipp (A)
J. S. Hobson (B) William Holman (F) Jacob Huddleston (A)
W. R. Latimer (B) G. W. Leeper (B) B. P. McCord (H)
J. S. Merideth (K) George Miles (E) Russell L. Parker (B)
W. L. Taylor (G) P. B. Tidwell (C) T. J. Thompson (I)
J. H. Watson Brig Bksmth T. R. Watson (C) H. D. Wilson (A)
Those listed as absent from the regiment on Aug. 31, not included with the sick or hospitalized were:
A. W. Davis (D), absent with leave on Aug. 31.
J. R. Gibson (G) was absent in the hospital for an extended period,
having been absent, sick mostly since the exchange.
Capt. Harrison Herndon (K), detached service per Aug. 31 muster.
Anderson Welch, Asst. Qm., was apparently relieved of his duties by
Gen. Hardee on Aug. 25, 1864, when a question was raised as to whether he had received a commission as an officer or not. Originally, he was assigned this position by Gen. Pike in April, 1862. Apparently no one had submitted his name for a commission before that day in East Point, Ga. when the question arose.
R. W. Wainfield (A), last reference, Sept. 22, 1864.
J. T. Woods (K), sick in the hospital, Aug. 30, 1864.
Activity in the front grew static and remained so until Aug. 27th, when Union forces started pulling back on the right. Sherman was sweeping across the country south of Atlanta, destroying railroads and supply lines. In response, the 19th was sent to Jonesboro, arriving early in the morning of August 31, and unsuccessfully attacked the Union line that day. On the following day, September 1, 1864, the 19th moved to the right of town and set about building defenses, but the enemy launched an attack and overran their positions in the process. The 19th Arkansas lost their battle flags in this fight, with 49 men from the 19th and 77 from the 8th Arkansas being captured that day and the next by the 74th Indiana Inf. Regt.
These prisoners were held together in an apple orchard near Jonesboro before being marched into town on the 2nd, starting for Atlanta early on the morning of the 4th. After marching 22 miles, they reached Atlanta in the evening and were housed in barracks until Sept. 7, at which time 580 prisoners boarded a train for Chattanooga about 4 P.M. Stopping at Marietta to spent the night, the train continued the next day, arriving at Chattanooga about
dusk. The prisoners were discharged here and herded into some very bad housing. There was no water available on the site, so it had to be hauled in to the prisoners. While here, they were furnished damaged cartons of food previously prepared and boxed as one days rations. On the 14th, the prisoners were again loaded onto boxcars, leaving about 4 P. M. for Nashville. Passing through Tullahoma about dawn, they arriving at Nashville later on the same morning.
Communications had been established between the two opposing commanders relative to a mutual exchange of prisoners, while the train loaded with prisoners was on the way to Nashville. The site selected for exchange was Rough and Ready, Ga., 2,000 prisoners were to be exchanged between September 19 and 22nd. The prisoners being sent to Nashville were turned around and headed back to Atlanta the same day they arrived. Passing through Murfreesboro, spending two nights along the way at Chattanooga and Dalton, they arrived at Atlanta at 5 A. M. on Sept.18. The first group, mostly officers with one General, were sent to the front for exchange the next day. Other men were held until Sept. 22, when the roll was called for 500 men to be exchanged, being loaded onto railroad cars, these men arriving at Rough and Ready about noon. The former prisoners, now back with the Confederate Army, arrived at Jonesboro that night, where they were issued two days rations. All the next day, they walked toward where the command was supposed to be. After camping for the night, the march was resuming at daybreak on the 30th, reaching the Command at Palmetto, and were reunited with their units. Those exchanged at Rough and Ready included:
Thompson Bates (H) Milton Blackwell (E) William Burk (D)
B. F. Burns (I) R. F. Chastain (F) D. A. Conatser (A)
James T. Cooper (E) Barney Davis (K) William H. Eastes (H)
Ellison Edwards (H) A. J. Gibson (F) John F. Gordon (E)
W. H. Green (C) R. M. Hall (K) Alvin Hamilton (K)
Robert Hamilton (H) Thomas Hamilton (H) Washington Hardin (A)
A. N. Henderson (F) Thomas Hicks (K) William H. Hunt (H)
Harrison Hunt (H) 7-7 Thomas M. Lee (B) Henry A. Logan (D)
J. M. Looper (H) M. A. Looper (H) Mark McMullen (E)
D. J. McWhortor (I) H. D. Medlock (C) R. A. Meredith (K)
William E. Morgan (E) L. W. Odom (F) J. J. Palmer (K)
H. L. Parker (F) Isaac Powell (H) Sidney W. Rankins (F)
J. A. Redding (E) F. Y. Reed (D) J. B. Smith (H)
F. B. Stewart (A) W. G. Stewart (A) James Teavor (K)
J. R. Z. Vaughn (I) R. B. Venable (F) R. W. Wainfield (A)
E. D. Williams (D) F. B. Wilson (A) William H. Wright (F)
Edmond Yandell (H) Wilson E. Yandell (H)
Only two men in this group were mentioned as having been wounded, Thompson Bates and W. H. Green. Also among them was Harrison Hunt, who had been captured on July 7 prior to the Battle of Atlanta. It is strange that he had been retained this long while all others captured after him had been sent to prison camps in the north. He was most likely retained in Atlanta or Nashville for some kind of
duty, being healthy and strong and without a surly attitude. Perhaps he helped care for the wounded, cut firewood, hauled water, or performed needed tasks to care for the prisoners.
There had been 233 enlisted men present on May 5, 1864, but another 35 enlisted men were confirmed lost by Sept. 30, leaving 198 on that date. Of the officers, there were 23 confirmed present on May 5, 1864, with 7 of them lost by Sept. 30, leaving 16 present. This gives the total regimental size to be no more than 214 men, likely less than this number were actually present after the exchange at Jonesboro. In a letter of Aug. 15, 1864, B. J. Park wrote his sister that there had been 26 men in Co. K when they left Dalton some 3 months earlier, but they had lost 15 killed or wounded in that time. This leaves Co. K with 11 men for duty at that time. There had been action on Sept. 6 1864 at Lovejoy, Ga. in which Lt. J. T. Woods (K) had been wounded, but by the 24th he was back at his duty station. Hood had moved his army to Palmetto, Ga., about 30 miles southwest of Atlanta. J. W. Brasher (H) was listed as having being hospitalized at Macon, Ga. Oct. 23, 1864, with Debilities, returned to duty Oct. 26.
Note: General Hood reported that total losses sustained by the Confederates opposing Sherman including New Hope Church until July 4th was 9,450 in killed and wounded. The ratio of killed to wounded ran about 1 in 7. The reports of casualties from July 4 until Sept. 1st, including the battles around Atlanta and Jonesboro were 12,546, with a same ratio between the number in killed and wounded. His effective force as of Sept. 20, was numbered at 40,403, plus 2,000 prisoners exchanged soon after, rounding out to 42,403 men on hand when he began the move toward Tennessee. However, some units, especially Cavalry units, were detached afterward.
CHAPTER 10. FRANKLIN, NASHVILLE, AND THE LAST DAYS
Reverses, shortfalls and disappointments are to be expected during the process of any worthwhile endeavor, and the Confederacy had seen these abundantly in recent months. Time had come for serious consideration of the next step for Gen. Hood, now that the Yankees controlled Atlanta. Sherman was about to begin of his infamous march to the sea, leaving a 60 mile wide trail of destruction in his path. His design was to destroy the ability of that fertile area from being able to supply the Confederate war machine. In light of recent events, Hood's options were reduced. He could make an effort to stop Sherman, retake Atlanta, or attack Sherman's line of supply to lure him away from his determined goal. If Sherman could be lured into splitting his army, Hood could then destroy the two parts. Leaving Gen. Hardee with a small army of regulars and Georgia Militia to give what opposition he could, Hood chose the latter. Crossing the Chattahoochie River west of Atlanta he moved north, determined to destroy Sherman's communications and supply lines.
On Oct. 1, 1864, the 19th Ark. was ordered to secure a bridge spanning that river, over which the army could pass. Marching 16 miles before making camp for the night, they reaching the river the next day, finding the bridge had washed out. Using rafts, they started transporting wagons and cannon across the river on the 3rd, encountering much difficulty because of the high water. With the arrival of the army on the next day, a pontoon bridge was constructed. News arrived that morning from Hood, who had gone on north with part of the army. He had taken possession of the railroad in the area of Big Shanty and was destroying the tracks. This would deny Sherman supplies from the north and also the railroad on which he could rapidly pursue Hood as he continued northward.
Following the Alabama border northward, Hood turned east to capture the garrison at Dalton, destroying several more miles of railroad there. But Sherman would not be deterred, leaving his pursuit of Hood, he continued toward Savannah and the ocean, where supplies could be brought in by ship. meanwhile, he took supplies from the land he was devastating. Hood's army turned westward across northern Alabama, keeping south of the Tennessee River. Arriving in the vicinity of Florence, Alabama, Hood was determined to march north and attack the union forces at Nashville, Tenn. Earlier Sherman had sent Gen. Thomas back to Nashville, to guard that place and possibly launch an attack into Alabama if the situation would allow.
Gen. Hood started his troops northward on Nov. 20, toward Nashville, intent on bringing that city under Confederate control. Largely, ample supplies were on hand, but they lacked shoes and clothes. The weather had turned extremely cold with freezing rain and snow. Upon Arrival at Franklin, Tenn., finding Schofield's Army dug in, a fierce battle was fought Nov. 30, 1864. The 19th Ark., as part of Cleburn's Division, was on the right, advancing into the Union lines. Among
the casualties were nine Confederate Generals, five were killed,
including Patrick Cleburn, three wounded, including Gen. Govan, being was shot in the neck, and one was captured. During the night, Schofield withdrew, leaving Hood in possession of the field.
After several more days of freezing rain, trying to salvage something from the situation, Hood continued northward toward Nashville. A much larger Union Army was waiting for him, that of Gen. George H. Thomas and Schofield. Halting about 4 miles south of the city, on Granny White Pike, Hood started building defenses. Gen. Thomas came out of the city and attacked Hood's hastily made positions on Dec. 15. Under heavy artillery barrages, Thomas advanced, pressing the battle through the day. Hood's lines were breached so severely that seasoned veteran soldiers, who charged courageously into the lines of this same army at Chickamauga, broke and ran from the field. So complete was the devastation, that the officers could not regain control of the masses of soldiers until they had crossed the Harpeth River at Franklin.
Gathering his dispersed army, Hood marched south, with the troops of S. D. Lee providing the rear guard duties. Arriving at Tupelo, Miss. on Jan. 10, 1865, Hood, a broken man, offered his resignation three days later, which was accepted on the 23rd. Gen. Alex Stewart was placed in command of the once proud Army of Tennessee. During the three weeks his army had been in Tenn., Hood's losses were about 15,000 men (See Addenda, p181), roughly about 1/3 of his army. Worse even yet was the condition of the survivors, being so demoralized, they would not be ready for further effective military action for some time, if ever. Signs of despair was present even among the officers, some attempting to resign. Among the officers of the 19th Arkansas these ominous signs were also present.
Ist Lt. John F. Gordon (E), given 75 day leave of absence Jan 22.
1st Lt. W. G. Stewart (A), given 75 day leave of absence Jan. 22.
Sgt. Maj. William H. Briggs, furloughed for 75 days, Tupelo, Miss. He returned to Arkansas and Joined Gen. Joe Shelby's command.
2nd Lt. William W. Sorrels (H), resignation Jan. 11, not accepted.
Sorrel's history in the 19th Ark. is an interesting study of how men are often forgotten through the normal events of day by day activity. 1st Lt. J. C. Gibson, commanding Co. H and Sorrels were the only officers in Co. H to be exchanged in Virginia. After Gibson died in Aug., 1863, Sorrels led the company at Chickamauga. In the reorganization of Nov. 15, 1863, Capt. Robinson was named as commander of Co. C - H, but he deserted in February, 1864. Still Sorrels remained a 2nd Lt. through all the battles involved in Sherman's drive for Atlanta, through Jonesboro, Franklin and Nashville. Now, when he offers his resignation, he becomes important. On Feb. 13, 1865, by Special Order 36/7 he was promoted to Captain. His attempt to resign was as follows:
Camp 8 & 19 Ark. Inf., near Tupelo, Miss., Jan. 11, 1865, Hon. J. A.
Sidon, Sir, I have the honor to tender you my resignation as 2nd Lt.
in Co. H, 19th Ark. Regt. of Infantry. Having served two years as an
officer, I now desire to serve as Private in some command in this
Department. Therefore, I hope it will be accepted unconditionally
and immediate, very respectfully, your able servant, Wm. W. Sorrels,
2nd Lt., Co. H, Ark. Inf.
I certify on honor that I am not indebted to the Confederate States
in any account whatever, that I have no government property in my
possession, and that there are no charges whatever pending against
me, your most able servant, Wm. W. Sorrels, 2nd Lt., Co. H, 19th Ark.
Endorsements on the reverse of the resignation appears:
1-19-65, disapproved, D. H. Hamiter, Maj. Comdg. Regt. Disapproved;
Govan's Brigade, P. I. Green, Col., Comdg.; Cleburn's Div., J. T.
Smith, Brig. Gen., Comdg.; Cheatham's Inf., B. F. Cheatham, Maj.
Gen.; Military Dist., Augusta, 2-22-65, Gen. Beauregard.; Gen.
Johnston's Hq., A. A. Gen., John Withers, 3-30-65.
Of the casualties at Franklin and Nashville, little is known, as no records survived in the middle of such confusion. The loss of life must have been heavy, judging from the number of other casualties sustained. From available prison and hospital records, some questions are answered. Those known to have been wounded or captured included:
J. T. Anderson (I), wounded, hospital at Meridian, Miss. Feb. 6,
1865, furloughed from Hospital.
William A. Boyd (B), captured ?, signed the oath at Nashville, Tenn.
May 5, 1865, and was paroled at Decatur, Ala. Aug. 6.
John J. Coley (G), wounded, left shoulder, hip and thigh on Nov. 30,
1864, captured Dec. 17, 1864, hospitalized, Nashville until March 1,
1865, oath at Point Lookout, Md. June 24, 1865, hospital with Scurvy
June 28, released to return to Hempstead County, Ark. July 20, 1865.
D. A. Conatser (A), hospitalized in Meridian, Miss. March 11, 1865.
John M. Copeland (C), wounded, Hospitalized at Meridian, Miss. Feb.
20, 1865, transferred to Cathbert?, Ga.
William T. Covy (B), captured Dec. 16, Oath, released June 13, 1865.
Capt. Daniel C. Cowling (Staff), captured Dec. 16, 1864, sent to
Johnson's Island, Ohio Dec. 20, 1864. Signed the oath June 16, 1865
and released to return to Columbus, Ark.
Barney Davis (K), wounded Nov. 30, 1864, captured Dec. 18, hospital
Nashville, Tenn. Jan. 8, 1865, Camp Chase, Ohio, Point Lookout, Md.
exchanged March 6, 1865, hospitalized at Meridian, Miss., furloughed
for 30 days, March 14, 1865.
William Eastes (H), captured Dec. 17, 1864, sent to Camp Douglas,
Ill., Feb. 26, enlisted in the 5th U. S. Vol's. April 18, 1865.
J. B. Edmonson (C), captured Dec. 17, 1864, paroled Feb. 20, Camp
Douglas, Ill., exchanged at Point Lookout, Md., Hosp. at Richmond,
Va. Feb. 28, 1865, furloughed 30 days, March 6, 1865.
2nd Lt. J. N. Elliott (K), wounded, hospitalized at Meridian, Miss.
Jan. 12, 1865, returned to duty later.
John H. Green (B), Shoulder wound, hospitalized, West Point, Miss.
Jan. 13, 1865, transferred to the hospital in Jackson, Miss on
Feb. 17 and returned to duty March 3, 1865, in time to go to N. C.
William H. Green (C), captured Dec. 16, 1865, paroled, Camp Chase,
Ohio, exchanged Point Lookout, Md. Feb. 17, 1865.
R. M. Hall (K), captured Nov. 30, 1864, sent to Camp Douglas, Ill. on Dec. 4, 1864, to New Orleans May 4, exchanged May 23, 1865.
Washington Hardin (A), captured Dec. 16, 1864, exchanged Feb 17,
1865, returned to Meridian, Miss. for hospitalization.
Thomas Hicks (K), left behind when the regiment left for North
Carolina, probably wounded. Surrendered by Gen. Taylor May 4, 1865
and paroled at Meridian, Miss. May 17.
E. P. Hogan (K), buried, McGavock Confederate Cem., Franklin, Tenn.
William Hunt (H), captured Dec. 17, 1864, sent to Camp Douglas, Ill., Dec. 22, released to Scott County, Ark., June 19, 1865.
J. W. Hunter (D), left behind when the regiment left for N. C.,
probably wounded, attached to Gen. Taylor's command, surrendered
by him May 4, 1865, being paroled at Meridian, Miss. May 17.
1st Lt. William Hunter (D), captured, released on Dec. 27, 1864 at
Nashville, Tenn. (Likely J. W. Hunter.)
Solomon Jackson (F), wounded, left thigh, hospitalized at Lauderdale, Miss., furloughed for 60 days Jan. 31, 1865.
W. N. Jackson (G), wounded Nov. 30, 1864, Fracture, right Humerus
and amputation of the right index finger at the first Phalanx.
Captured Dec. 16, paroled at City Point, Va. Feb. 25, 1865, hospital at Richmond, Va. March 6, sent to Meridian, Miss. March 24, 1865.
Timothy Johnson (H), wounded Nov. 30, 1864, captured Dec. 18,
hospital, Nashville, Tenn., died May 22, 1865.
C. W. Jones, Jr. (C), hospital, Meridian, Miss. Jan. 7, 1865.
Alexander Ledbetter (H), wounded, hospital Meridian, Miss. Jan. 15,
1865, transferred to Mobile, Ala. Jan. 18, to Greenville, Ala., Feb.
6, 1865, captured, signed oath April 22, 1865.
Thomas Long (H), wounded, hospital, Meridian, Miss., furlough March
D. K. McDonald (I), wounded, hospital, Meridian Miss., Jan. 19, 1865,
Surrender at Augusta, Ga., May 1, oath and released May 14, 1865, to
Washington County, Ark.
Francis Smith (D), wounded, Nov. 30, 1864, captured Dec. 17, 1864,
released on his oath at Camp Chase, Ohio June 13, 1865.
W. S. White (K), wounded, hospital, Meridian, Miss. Jan. 1865.
William Wingfield (A), captured Dec. 16, exchanged March 21, 1865,
furloughed from the hospital at Meridian, Miss.
2nd Lt. J. T. Woods (K), wounded, Lovejoy, Ga. 9-6-64., returned to
duty, left behind when the regt. left for N. C., surrendered by Gen.
Taylor May 4,1865, and was paroled at Meridian, Miss. May 17.
Of the 200 enlisted men present the last of September, 1864, only 20 can be confirmed lost in Tennessee. Of the 16 officers, 4 have been confirmed lost and 3 resigned, leaving 9. The total loss was 29 confirmed, however the death and desertion rate must have been high as well. Hood's Army lost over 1/3 of its number, if this figure holds true with the 19th Arkansas, their loss would have been about 65 men. Only 3 officers are mentioned after reaching North Carolina, leaving 9 unaccounted for. No record has been found of those killed at Franklin or Nashville, they being left behind and buried by the Union Army. Only 61 men are confirmed as going to North Carolina.
Back in Georgia, Gen. Hardee, with but one division of Confederate troops, plus scattered militia and garrison troops at his disposal, gave what opposition he could to the march of Sherman. Reaching Savannah on Dec. 23, 1864, Sherman turned toward South Carolina, marching through Columbia and on to North Carolina. Hardee was powerless to stop the drive, but did make attempts, such as the battle of Averysboro, where he suffered 700 casualties. Then, for the third time, on Feb. 23, 1865, Joseph Johnston was put in command of the troops opposing Sherman. He started gathering all the available troops for the monumental task.
The Army of Tennessee, 5000 of them, under Gen. Alex Stewart, including the 19th Ark., was sent to Smithville, N. C., to join in the effort. Marching 18 miles to Bentonville, Johnston united his forces with Hardee, who had been skirmishing with the Union Army all that day. The Battle of Bentonville was fought March 19 through 21
with Johnston retreating across Mill Creek during the night of the 21st, marching to Smithville. His casualties for the Battle of Bentonville numbered about 2,600. No information in particular was been found as to involvement of the 19th Ark. in this last battle, however, some men were hospitalized, indication they were involved.
A. A. Leslie (I), hospitalized at Greensboro on March 19. He was
paroled May 1, 1865 at the hospital in High Point, N. C.
J. R. Wakley (D), hospitalized at Greensboro in March, 1865.
Thompson Bates (H), hospital, Greensboro in March, 1865.
B. J. Park (K), hospitalized at Greensboro in March, 1865.
J. R. Z. Vaughn (I), hospitalized at Greensboro in March, 1865, yet
he was released back to the Regt. before the surrender.
Johnston, on April 9, reorganized his army into a more useful fighting force, consolidating the various regiments. What was left of the once proud 19th Ark. Inf. Regt. was hardly large enough to make one small Co. Col. E. A. Howell, selected to command the newly formed 1st Consolidated Ark. Inf. Regt., being men from the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th. 8th, 13th, 15th, 19th and 24th Ark. Inf. Regts., plus the 3rd Ark. Confederate Inf. The 19th became Company I in this new regt., which became part of Govan's Brigade, Brown's Division of Hardee's Corps. On the following day, Johnston moved his army to Raleigh, N. C., with Sherman following close behind.
Robert E. Lee had already surrendered in Virginia, so the end was inevitable. Johnston sent a note to Sherman, asking for a cessation of hostilities, and negotiations for peace. A meeting was arranged for April 17 at Durham Station, on the road between Raleigh and Hillsboro. In the days following, terms of peace were worked out, including the following terms. All acts of war must be stopped, all public property in the possession of the Confederate Army was to be taken to, and deposited at Greensboro. Muster Rolls the Confederate Army was to be made, and each man would be required to sign an oath that they would not take up arms against the Union again. Officers would be allowed to retain their sidearms, private horses and luggage. Horses and wagons would be loaned to groups for their return home, along with one rifle for each 7th man, which would to be turned in to the arsenal in the home state when the group arrived. Troops from across the Mississippi could go to Mobile, Ala. and transportation would be provided to New Orleans by boat, giving access up the various rivers to their homes.
The men in Johnston's Command numbered 37,047, including those at Greensboro, Salisbury and Charlotte. Being unable to face either the terms offered or the indignity of the surrender, some men simply deserted and started for home. The various regiments then marched to the designated spot and stacked arms for the last time.
Two days after Johnston met Sherman in their first attempt to work out the terms of the surrender, Johnston drew all the money that he had in his possession on April 19, dividing it equally among his men. Enlisted men and officers alike drew an equal share of the $39,000, each man drawing what amounted to less than a week's wages for a Private. This last precious gift gives testimony to why Johnston was so popular with his troops. Those men who had deserted, captured, or who were separated from the regiment at the surrender included:
Henry H. Bibb (F), hospitalized April 24 at Charlotte, just 2 days
before the surrender, released the following month.
William Boyd (B), captured, signed the oath at Nashville May 5, 1965,
paroled at Decatur,Ala. August 7, 1865.
John F. Champion (A), deserted April 26, 1865 was later paroled at
Chester, S. C. on May 5.
Samuel Dark (H), captured April 12, 1865 at Salisbury, N. C. Signed
the oath and was released June 12 at Camp Chase, Ohio.
Benjamin F. Dean (C), paroled April 26 at Greensboro, signed the oath
on August 8, 1865.
E. Dobbs (E), after being wounded at Chickamauga, being unfit for
further service, put in charge of the gov't flocks, was on detached
service on April 26, 1865.
J. M. Haynes (I), surrendered at Charlotte, N. C. with Loring's Div.
April 26, paroled May 3, 1865.
W. P. Henderson (A), captured April 16, 1865 at West Point, Ga.,
signed the oath at Chattanooga, Tenn. on May 4, released at
Louisville, Ky. on May 9, 1865.
James Merritt (D), AWOL, Feb. 29 to Aug. 31, 1864, declared unfit for
the service. However, he was paroled May 5, 1865 at Charlotte, N. C.
James L. Reed (I), furloughed from the hospital at Jackson, Miss. on
Oct. 14, 1864, captured and paroled May 15, 1865.
When the regiment left Mississippi for North Carolina, a number of men were left behind in the hospitals of the area. Though scattered around the area, these men were included in the surrender when Gen. Richard Taylor capitulated at Citronelle, Alabama on May 4, 1865. These men were paroled at Meridian, Miss. on May 17 that year, or as in the case of James H. Yarborough (K), at Grenada, Miss. on May 18.
One person of interest was William Sipes (G), who was confined at Camp Douglas, Ill., following the Arkansas Post capture until he was exchanged March 12, 1865. Being hospitalized at Richmond, Va. with Edema in his right leg, he was captured again, as a patient, when
Richmond fell. He was then sent to Point Lookout, Md. on May 2, 1865, being released July 25, 1865 after signing the oath. Four days later, May 29, he appeared at the office of the Provost Marshall at Washington, D. C., requesting and being granted transportation to Shreveport, Louisiana.
There could have been no more that 75 enlisted men left in the regiment when they marched out of Mississippi to North Carolina, more accurately probably 60. Some 16 men were lost to the regiment by the time of the surrender, leaving only 44 present at the end. There were only 5 possible officers left to be able to leave Mississippi, of which only 3 were present at the end.
From nearly 1,300 men who had at various times been a part of the 19th Arkansas in the 4 years of its history, only 50 were present at the end. The ten companies were reduced to a small company.
Company I, 1st Consolidated Ark. Inf. roster:
Captain, William B. Cone (E).
1st Lt. J. D. Stewart (A).
2nd Lt. J. N. Elliott (K).
1st Sgt. Andrew J. Gibson (F).
2nd Sgt. F. B. Wilson (A).
3rd Sgt. Isaac F. Powell (H).
4th Sgt. E. D. Williams (D).
1st Cpl. J. A. Craig (I).
2nd Cpl. James T. Cooper (E).
3rd Cpl. Robert Hamilton (H).
4th Cpl. Isaac W. Wingfield (A).
Sgt. John H. Green (B). Detailed to Division Headquarters at the
Those listed as privates included:
J. M. B. Baker (D) Andrew Barnett (E) M. B. Blackwell (E)
A. J. Conatser (A) J. C. Hall (H) Thomas Hamilton (H)
William G. Harris (F) J. A. Humphries (F) Harrison Hunt (H)
W. J. Jetton (K) J. T. Lane (I) Henry A. Logan (D)
A. R. Loman (F) James M. Looper (H) M. A. Looper (H)
Mark McMullen (E) William E. Morgan (E) Jonathan Neal (B)
Wiley Nelson (F) Jacob Nugent (A) L. W. Odom (F)
J. J. Palmer (K) C. C. Rankins (F) J. A. Rankins (F)
Sidney Rankins (F) J. A. Redding (E) William Riley (A)
F. B. Stewart (A) George W. Sumner (B) James Teavor (K)
J. R. Z. Vaughn (I) R. B. Venable (F) J. J. Whisenhunt (C)
R. M. White (F) John W. Wilson (A) G. D. Wood (B)
Edmond D. Yandell (H) Wilson E. Yandell (H). Simeon McCown (I)
In 1893, about 350 unknown Confederate dead were disinterred from their scattered graves at the battlefield at Bentonville, and placed in one common grave. A large monument was erected by the Goldsboro Rifles identifying it as such.
CHAPTER 11. THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI DEPARTMENT
Portions of the 19th and the 24th Ark. Inf. Regts. were not present at Arkansas Post when the capture occurred Jan. 11, 1863. Col. C. L. Dawson, Commander of the 19th, wrote that these two parts were about equal in number. Being consolidated into one unit, they went by the name of Dawson's Regiment, Arkansas Infantry. Very few men can be confirmed to have served in this group in the Trans-Miss. Dept, including a few transferred from the Army of Tennessee. A sizable number existed, however, but the surviving records are rare as compared to those of the regiment in the east. This new regiment may have contained perhaps 700 men after being combined. These were men on furlough, in the hospital, or absent on a detail of some kind when the battle was fought. Some, no doubt, were away on foraging duties, couriers carrying messages, hauling freight, or on recruiting service. Dawson himself was absent, leaving the command in the able hands of Lt. Col. A. S. Hutchinson.
Although fewer records of Dawson's regiment in the Trans-Miss. Dept. survived compared to those east of the river, there are a sufficient number to leave a basic trail of their activities. Initially, the regiment was reformed within itself, with the 10 companies being consolidated into 5, to which those of the 24th regiment were added. This consolidation united companies A with H; B with C; D with E; F with I; and G with K. Companies from the 24th regiment were added also, with Company I being added to A-H; G to B-C; K to D-E, and others with no record to determine their attachment. Dawson's Regiment became part of Brig. Gen. J. C. Tappan's Brigade, of Maj. Gen. Sterling Price's Division.
From evidences in the records, Dawson returned to the area where the the regiment was initially formed and recruited men to fill the depleated ranks. Some men escaping the capture simply went home. On Feb. 9, 1863, Capt. J. J. Nelson signed a voucher for corn and hay to feed two horses at Paraclifta, Sevier County, Arkansas. Three days later, a letter was drafted at Center Point, Hempstead County addressed to Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy. This letter, signed by thirteen officers is as follows:
2-12-63, Center Point, Hon. Jefferson Davis, President, Confederate
States, Richmond, Virginia. Sir, the undersigned commissioned
officers of the C. S. Army, most respectfully request that you
approve Col. C. L. Dawson, of the 19th Regt. Ark. Vol's. C. S. A.,
Brigadier General. Most of us have served under Col. Dawson for over 12 months, know him to be imminently qualified for the position. He is an excellent officer, governs his men equal to any man. We have been with him under the most trying circumstances. He has never swerved from responsibility, or failed to discharge his whole duty. His men are devoted to him, and his appointment will give a renewed stimulus to the Ark. troops generally. With the hope, Sir, that you will grant our request, we subscribe ourselves, Sir, Your Obedient Servant.
B. C. Haller, Capt. Co. B J. H. Anderson, Maj.
Nathan Eldridge, Capt. M. W. E. Frazier, 1st Lt.
D. M. Cochran, Chaplain J. W. Watson, Capt.
N. Davis, Lt. S. H. McCasland, Captain
J. D. R. Forgy, Lt., Co. B J. J. Nelson, Capt. A. P. I.
William Meers, Adj. James R. Hill, 1st Lt., Co. E
G. A. Torbett, Capt., Co. H
All of these officers were from the 19th Arkansas with the exception of McCasland, being from the 24th. This letter, along with a letter from Charles B. Mitchell, Senator, and the Honorable G. D. Rayston, was sent March 17, giving testimony to the character and abilities of Col Dawson. The package arrived March 20 at the office of the president in Richmond, and was "filed with like papers". Some of these men had resigned earlier, but came back to assist in filling the ranks depleted by the Arkansas Post capture. J. H. Anderson had resigned July 15, 1862, M. W. E. Frazier, with medical problems, resigned May 15. Nathan Eldridge had not survived the election of Aug. 13, 1862. Although these men signed the document, it is not certain that all of them actually returned to the service again.
By March, 1863, Dawson signed for some gold buttons on March 7 in Little Rock, with G. A. Torbett and B. H. Crowley signing for articles from the Quartermaster on May 14. John Adair (D) was discharged March 10, followed by L. B. Morgan (E) on July 1, drawing his pay on the 4th. Charles B. Peguis became 1st Sgt. in Co. F April 19, 1863. James Burk, (D), David Draper (I) J. B. Harris (A) and T. S. Leatherman (A) all received pay at Arkadelphia on April 7, June 16, 19, 20 respectfully. Several officers drew clothing and equipment at Little Rock in July, including B. C. Haller, J. T. Hamiter, B. R. Jacobs, James R. Hill, Nathaniel Davis and John A. Turner. Asst. Surg. Edward L. Hamilton bought 2 pairs of shoes for $12 from the Quartermaster on July 6. General E. K. Smith, commanding the Trans-Miss. Dept., issued an order June 30, 1863 for all men who had escaped from the Arkansas Post capture to report to Gen. T. H. Holmes at Little Rock. The threat for not do so was to face possible desertions charges and a courtmartial. From this, we understand that some not captured at the Post had simply gone home and stayed.
Gen. T. H. Holmes marched much of the army in Arkansas to Helena, near where the St. Francis River enters the Mississippi, in an effort to reclaim it. The Battle of Helena was fought on July 4, 1863, in an effort to give some relief to the beleaguered forces at Vicksburg, Miss. Suffering a bitter defeat, the Confederate Army marched back to Little Rock, to wait for the Union Army, which was sure to come. Dawson's Regiment did not participate in the Battle of Helena. Just as the Battle of Chickamauga served as the crucible from which the Army of Tennessee begin to lose their morale, so was the Battle of Helena to the troops in Arkansas. Desertions escalated as the willingness to fight waned. This was not as pronounced with men fighting on home soil, as it was in the east, except among the conscripted regiments, but it was present.
Defenses around the capitol city begin to take a new perspective, as the Union Army continued marching in that direction. The first line of defense had been set up at Bayou Mato, ten miles east, but when the Union Army outflanked these, the Rebels pulled back closer to the city. Among those preparing these defenses was Nazra Mitchell, who had been discharged from Company H a year ago, being above the age for compulsory service. He was doing carpentry work at Camp Bowen in July and Aug., 1863. Gen. Holmes had became ill, turning the command over to Gen. Price, the commander of Missouri Troops. Preparations were being hastily made to move the capitol to the town of Washington, in the southwest county of Hempstead.
These elaborate defenses near Little Rock, served only to cause Gen. Frederick Steele, the Union Commander, to alter his direction of approach to the city. Splitting his army, he placed one division on the south side of the Arkansas river, with both units marching up each side of the river. Only one small brigade of Confederates was on the south side to intercept that division, which could be supported by artillery fire from units on the north side also. Viewing what the city would look like after an all out attack, being outnumbered, and with the offensive movement of the enemy, Price wisely chose to abandon the city before the battle got into full swing. On September 9, the last of the Confederate defenders marched south out of the city toward Arkadelphia.
A number of men, those in the hospital, stragglers, deserters and men trying to get their families out did not get away before Union Troops arrived. Some of these were captured, including:
John W. Green (G), Co. K of the 24th, captured Sept. 10th, arrived at Camp Morton, Ind. Oct. 31, and was exchanged at Point Lookout, Md. Feb. 19, 1865, returned to service March 1st at Camp Lee, Va.
C. C. Hammock (B), an ambulance driver, was taken on the 12th, was
transported by boat to Camp Morton, Indiana, arriving on Oct. 31,
died of acute dysentery July 24, 1864.
J. C. Sullivan (C), captured near Pine Bluff Sept. 11, probably on
foraging duties, died of acute diarrhea Nov. 7, 1864 as a prisoner at Columbus, Ky.
While at Arkadelphia, on Sept. 20, J. Davis (E) requested medical leave, being debilitated, and was granted 20 days on the 26th, with the needed certification from Asst. Surg. E. L. Hamilton. The actual location of Camp Mitchell seemed to be have been near Arkadelphia, the regiment being located here at least from early in October until early November. While here, on Nov. 7, 1863, 2nd Lt. B. R. Jacobs made a request to resign and be transferred to another command because he could neither read nor write. It was not unusual for men in that time to be illiterate, but for an officer to be so would be most difficult indeed. He had been elected 2nd Lt. by his peers on August 13, 1862, and had continued in this roll
for over a year, but eventially, this had to be a severe handicap. If he should have been put in command of the company, he could not read the roll or record the names of men. His company commander, James R. Hill endorsed the action, rejecting the transfer, being endorsed also by Capt. B. C. Haller, commanding the Regt. and Col. Dawson, commanding the Brigade, both temporarily. Another resignation was of 1st Lt. John H. Bell (I) on Nov. 18, 1863. He had been captured at Arkansas Post, but escaped a few days later at Memphis. Making his way home, he returned to Dawson's command and was promoted to 1st Lt. In Nov., 1863, he was examined by a board and found incompetent to serve as an officer for some infraction. After his resignation, he enlisted in Shelby's Mo. Cavalry.
Cavalry units, both Union and Confederate, were always on the alert and searching for the enemy. It is necessary for the commander of an army in the field to know the location of the enemy, being watchful to detect his every move. Union Cavalry during the fall months of 1863 was no exception. A scouting trip was conducted by them Nov. 11 through 18, taking them from Benton to Mt. Ida and back, passing through Saline County. This group saw action at La Fourche Le Aix Mountains, and at Caddo Gap on the 11th. A skirmish took place at Caddo Mill on the 14th, and on the following day, action was reported about 15 miles north of Mt. Ida. Another scouting trip by the 2nd Kansas Cavalry, from Dec. 2 through 7th, left and returned to Waldron. Their trail went through Mt. Ida, Caddo Gap, and back through Dallas, near Mena before returning to Waldron. Confederate soldiers captured about this time were:
2nd Lt. Benjamin H. Crowley (H), captured in Scott County Oct. 23,
1863. Most likely, he had gone back to the county in an effort to
recruit men desperately needed for the service. He was imprisoned at
Johnson's Island, Ohio, arriving on April 12, 1864. On being paroled
Jan. 9, 1865, he was transported to New Orleans, and exchanged at Red
River Landing, La. February 26.
Jeremiah M. Hall (H), captured in Scott County Nov. 15, 1863, likely
home on leave, transported to Alton, Ill. for imprisonment, he was
exchanged at the mouth of the Red River on May 2, 1865.
John B. Morphus (A) was captured in Saline County Nov. 17. He was
transported to the prison camp at Alton, Ill., where he was received
Sept. 29, 1864, and enlisted in the 5th U. S. Inf. on April 14, 1865.
James H. Orrick (D), deserted Dec. 1, 1863, signed the oath at Little
Rock April 30, 1864.
John R. Perry (H), captured Dec. 6, 1863 at Dallas in Polk County,
near Mena, by elements of the 2nd Kan. Cav.
W. W. Ridgeway was recorded as having deserted on Jan. 23, 1864.
George Whisenhunt took the oath Feb. 20, 1865 at Little Rock.
The winter of 1863-64 was an extremely cold winter in Arkansas, the temperature remained below freezing from Christmas until after New Years Day, falling below zero several nights. It is noted that H. M. Pipkins (I) received pay on Jan. 21, 1864, for the period of July 1 to Aug. 31, 1863. On January 27, it was recorded at Camp Bragg that Samuel Huff (E) had deserted and was "now in the Cavalry Service without authority." He had joined Co. B, Goole's 23rd Tex. Cav. Most military activity was arrested during this cold winter, with the men content in trying to keep warm. Dawson's Regiment was stationed at Camp Bragg, near Camden during this time. 1st Lt. James Mitchell (I) requested a leave during January due to the serious illness of his mother. The request was as follows:
Camp Bragg, Jan'y 20, '64, Major McClean, Sir, I have the honor of
respectfully asking a leave of absence of twenty days for the
following reasons. My mother is very sick, and I wish to go home.
Since I entered the service of the C. S., which was on the 26th day
of February, 1862, I have never received a furlough or leave of
absence. Respectfully, James Mitchell, 1st Lt. Co. I Dawson's Regt.
This officer has never had a leave of absence or furlough & is very
prompt in the discharge of his duties & we regard his second
application, having recently heard from his mother, as an extreme-
or urgent case. J. A. Turner, Capt., Comdg. Company.
During this cold winter, the health of Col. Dawson took a turn for the worse. Suffering with rheumatism for a long time, some rather severe attacks came on occasions, leaving him unable to work. Any physical exertion left him ill, so he was examined by the regimental Surgeon, on Feb. 6. Being found to be suffering from Chronic Subacute Rheumatism and Chronic Hepatitis, he was pronounced unfit for duty. The Asst. Surg., E. L. Hamilton, also examined him with the same results. We note that John H. Gaines became Surgeon in Dawson's Regt. during February. On the day of the examination, under great personal stress, Dawson sat down to make one of the most difficult decisions of his life, to resign from the service. The following letter was sent to Col. S. S. Anderson, Asst. to the Asst. General, Trans-Mississippi Department.
Hdqtrs., Dawson's Regiment, Tappan's Brigade, Price's Division. Camp Sumter, Feb. 6, 1864. Col. S. S. Anderson, Sir, I hereby tender my immediate and unconditional resignation because of utter inability to perform the duties of my office. I have postponed to take this course for some time, with the hope that my health would improve, but I find myself growing worse continually, and I feel it an imposition upon the service for me to hold my position. I very much dislike to be disconnected with the army, and I believe that could I be released from duty until warm weather, I might be able to resume my duties. But whilst I should be grateful for such a favor, I doubt the propriety of asking for it. ... Respectfully ... I am, sir, very respectfully your ob't. serv't., C. L. Dawson, Col., Comdg. PACS.
Six days later, Col. Dawson wrote another letter, requesting a leave of absence while his resignation was being considered. The letter was endorsed by his Brigade Commander, J. C. Tappan on Feb. 13, and Gen. Thomas Drayton, the Division Commander. Drayton added the following suggestions before the letter was forwarded to Lt. Gen T. H. Holmes and on to Gen. E. Kirby Smith at Shreveport, Louisiana:
Forw'd with the recommendation it be accepted and that Col. Portlock
be approved the commander of the Regt., which is composed of parts of
Dawson's and Portlock's Regt's. that escaped from the Post in about
equal number. The parts of these two regts. that were captured are
consolidated into one regt. east of the Miss., since they were
exchanged. Col. Portlock is now here, having received his
appointment as Col.
After Dawson left, Lt. Col. William R. Hardy was named his successor to command the regiment, becoming known as Hardy's Regiment. A number of officers had been returned from Georgia to Arkansas. Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Churchill, left Tennessee prior to the Battle of Chickamauga, and later took command of Drayton's Division. Other officers had been declared supernumerary also and returned late in 1863 or early 64. Some were further declared supernumerary here and resigned. One of them, 2nd Lt. Frank M. Thompson, was assigned to recruiting duty, from which he was relieved Feb. 20, 1865. 2nd Lt. L. A. Williams reported to Arkansas, but resigned Dec. 5, 1864. Captain Robert L. Duncan reported back, requesting 10 days leave, and his records end. Other officers sent back, whose records end were 2nd Lt. P. J. Coulter, Capt. L. W. Delony and 2nd Lt. P. R. Goolsby.
By late March, 1864, General E. Kirby Smith, commanding the Trans-Miss. Dept., pulled Churchill's Division to Shreveport, La. On the 4th, he sent them to Keatchie, about 25 miles south, in support of Gen. Richard Taylor, commanding in Louisiana. Price's command was left in Arkansas to watch Steele, but the real action was in the Red River Valley for the moment. Marching up the Red River from New Orleans, was the Union Army commanded by Gen. N. P. Banks. A coordinated effort was being made against Shreveport, with Banks ascending the Red River, and Gen. Steele coming south from Little Rock, supported by Gen. Thayer from Ft. Smith. Smith wanted Taylor to avoid a fight until arriving closer to Shreveport, where they could launch a combined effort. Taylor retreated steadily before Banks not giving much of a fight, until arriving at the town of Mansfield. He had been watching for the right moment to strike, and found it. The Union Army was strung out on the road, when Taylor launching his attack on April 8. He not only stopped the advance, but was effective in driving them back 8 miles to Pleasant Hill, where the Union Forces regrouped and went into a defensive posture.
On hearing the news, Smith dispatched Churchill's Division, under the command of one of the Brigade Commanders, Brig. Gen. J. C. Tappan, from Keatchie for closer support of Taylor. On the day of the battle, Tappan started south in forced marching, arriving at Pleasant
Hill at 2 P. M. on April 9th, 1864. Tappan's Troops, having marched nearly 40 miles, were giving 2 hours rest and took a position on the Confederate Right, with Hardy's Regt. on the brigade left. After the battle of Pleasant Hill ended, the lines were about where they started. Tappan pulled back to the nearest water and Banks, under orders to move his army to Mississippi, starting retreating down the river. Only two casualties are known from Hardy's Regt., William Barrell (B) and William Ortine (D), being captured. They were both exchanged two weeks later at Blair's landing on the Red River.
Gen. Steele started south from Little Rock, being joined by Gen. John M. Thayer north of Camden, much delayed by heavy rains making progress slow. Steele turned aside to Camden, sending messengers to Gen. Banks for progress reports. While waiting, he lost a supply train at Poison Springs, being captured largely by troops from Indian Territory, who had come to assist in the action. Another supply train was lost at Mark's Mills. Steele received reports that Banks was descending the river and additional troops from Louisiana had arrived on his front. Realizing his situation was precarious, he wisely decided to return north to Little Rock. Churchill's Div. had arriving from Louisiana at Camden.
Steele crossed the Ouichita River at Camden on a rubber pontoon bridge, taking it with him when he left. The Confederate commander did not knew of his departure for several hours, used rafts to cross the river and give pursuit by forced marches. Each man carried two days rations, successful caught the Union Army crossing the Saline river at Jenkin's Ferry. The Battle that day, April 30, was heavy, Steele having to complete the crossing under fire. Once across, he cut the rafts, rendering them useless, and left the scene. Further pursuit by the Confederate army was abandoned. In the Battle of Jenkin's Ferry, Hardy's regiment had suffered 26 casualties, 8 killed and 18 wounded, but the names of these men were not revealed. John B. Easter was wounded at an unknown date while serving in Hardy's Regt., possibly here.
The Confederate Army retired back to Camden, and activity came to a standstill. On some necessary scouting trips and foraging parties, opposing parties would meet and after a brief skirmish, would end just as suddenly. Edward Toms (D) was captured in Hempstead County on April 13, 1864, being sent from Little Rock, he arrived at Rock Island. Ill. July 6. Taking the oath, he enlisted in the U. S. Army for frontier service Oct. 6. Abraham Baldwin took the oath Feb. 20, 1865 at Little Rock. C. J. Hawkins had been hospitalized in Shreveport, La. for two days on April 20 and William Mears, Adjutant for the regiment, died at an unknown date.
The army of Gen. Price, from Missouri, was getting pretty thin in the ranks by this time. Many of his troops had been away from home since after the battle of Oak Hills on Aug. 10, 1861. In an effort to enlist new men, a plan was devised to make a raid through
Missouri by Price's Division, to destroy the Union garrisons in that State. Volunteers seemed to have been called for through the ranks for select men to accompany this venture. At least one man from Hardy's Regt. saw action in this drive, Henry J. Westbrook (C), who died September 29, 1864. Crossing the Arkansas River near Dardanelle about Sept. 1, with skirmishes being made at Little Rock, Ft. Smith and probably other places to cover the activity, Price moved with lightening speed into Missouri. On the 27th he attacked the garrison at Pilot Knob, two days later he was defeated in a bid to capture St. Louis. Turning across the State, he marched from east to west, fighting battles at Kansas City, Independence, Lexington and Westport. A large force of Missouri Union Militia pressed them all the way and successfully captured his most trusted General, John S. Marmaduke and about 1,000 men just inside the Kansas border at the battle of Mine Creek. The remainder of the command continued south and joined the rest of the Confederate Army in South Arkansas.
When Price returned, Churchill's division was in camp at Lewisville, Ark. until the last of December, at which time they marched to Fulton to prepare defensive positions at the Red River crossing. Completing these, they marched south to Minden, Louisiana late in January, 1865 to winter quarters. Later they were moved back to Shreveport, and on April 11, 1865 they arrived at Marshall, Texas. It is not known if Hardy's regiment was present in all these moves, but is presumed to have been. On the 29th of the month, a meeting was called throughout the division to determine if the war was to be continued. Gen's. Lee and Johnston had surrendered in Va. and N. C. respectively, so there was no hope in further resistance. Many diverse opinions were expressed, but in the end it was decided to continue until the last ray of hope was exhausted. Many desertions were taking place by this time, and many surrendered to the Union authorities, to be paroled and sent home, some for the first time in over 4 long years. On May 26, one month after the 19th Regt. had surrendered in N. C., Gen. E. Kirby Smith surrendered the troops of the Trans-Mississippi Dept. to the authorities in New Orleans, Louisiana. Those men still in camp signed a parole at Shreveport and were released to go home. J. A. Thomas (C), among these, listing his address as Natchitoches, La. The last known man from the 19th to sign a parole was Lt. Col. P. R. Smith, originally second in command of the regiment. He signed the parole listed below.
I, the undersigned Prisoner of War, belonging to the Army of the
Trans-Mississippi Department, having been surrendered by General E.
Kirby Smith, CSA, Commanding said Department, to Major General E. R.
S. Canby, USA, Commanding Army and Division of West Mississippi, do
hereby give my solemn parole of honor, that I will not hereafter
serve in the Armies of the Confederate States, or in any military
capacity whatever, against the United States of America, or render
aid to the enemies of the latter, until properly exchanged in such
manner as shall be mutually approved by the respectfully authorities.
Residence, Sevier County, Ark. (Signed) P. R. Smith, Lt. Col., 19th
Regt. Ark. Vol's. July 14, 1865, Brownsville, Texas.
The long struggle was over, perhaps the hardest struggle this country will ever experience. No families were left untouched by this episode in the American Experience. The long line of graves, left in the wake by the passing 19th Arkansas Infantry, is but a small part of this story. Numerous men were left buried at the many crossroads, campgrounds and communities when they passed, many being lost to their families forever in some lonely unmarked tomb. Those fortunate enough to make it home again were changed, having written so much history is so short a time. They had witnessed the absolute personification of death, depression and despair. A pale horseman had ridden across the land, thrusting in his sickle, and reaping from the vintage of the land.
Somehow the question must be raised as to who won. Certainly the South did not, their sorrows were to be endured for generations. The North lost too much to claim an absolute victory. Many thousands of mothers throughout the north would not witness the return of their sons, giving stark testimony of this. There was no winner at the moment, but as we view from a vantage point of so many years later, the nation won. From the crucible of this great struggle was cast, not the raw product of the ore placed in it, but the refined product of the finest metal. A weaver had produced from a common mean loom a fabric of the finest quality.
Today, we are nearing 130 years after the close of the Civil War. Mothers have held fear in their hearts as their sons marched away to the numerous wars fought since that time. Some of them returned and some were buried in a far away land. Through it all, we are proud of our country. She is what she has been made, in large measure, by our ancestors who fought for her. We judge not the stance for which the Confederacy fought so bravely, though there is something inherently right in a community wishing to seek its on destiny. The Civil War proved the need for a strong centralized seat of government that gives liberty through unity. Had the south won, the individual states, quarreling among themselves, possibly would not have been able to survive such times as World War II.
Perhaps the greatest war is yet to be fought, not brought on by outside enemies, but from within, not the traditional polarization of idealogies, but from the total lack thereof. Self indulgence running amok, out of control, fed by a misguided legal system. Those forces that attack from the outside merely test the strength of a country, while those struggles born from within are what makes it strong. These recurring struggles, with many and varied faces, are with us in every generation. We as a nation must be made strong by them, or our great way of life will diminish into obscurity. Perhaps our grandchildren will study that great war, its leaders and its battles. Hopefully, we pray, they will be able to stand in awe of the strength their grandparents possessed, just as we do of ours today. Merrill Pence, June 14, 1994.
INDEX of those names included, who were not a part of the 19th Arkansas Infantry Regiment.
.Anderson, Col. p33.
.Anderson, S. S. p89.
.Arnold, Capt. p7.
.Banks, N. P., p90, 91.
.Beauregard, Gen. Pierre, p90
.Blocker, William D. p25.
.Bradley, D. C. p39.
.Bragg, Braxton p47, 49, 50, 56, 59-61, 89, 160.
.Breckenridge, Gen. John C. p55.
.Brown, Henry K. p5.
.Brown, Gen. John C., p81.
.Brown, Col. 157.
.Brown, Capt. p28.
.Brudie, Surgeon, p39.
.Canby, E. R. S., p93.
.Carroll, Capt. p7.
.Carroll, Col. DeRosey, 7.
.Cheatham, B. F., p78.
.Churchill, T. J. p10, 31-35, 47, 49, 58, 90-92, 116.
.Cleburn, Pat. p47, 55 59-60, 66-71, 76-78, 102.
.Corley, Capt., p25.
.Curtis, Samuel, p15.
.Davis, Clayton, p70-71.
.Davis, Jefferson, p85.
.Denson, Capt., p32.
.Deshler, James, p31-33, 49, 59.
.Didmukes, Capt. p7.
.Dockery, Col. Thomas P., p6-8, 10-11, 121.
.Douglas, Stephen A., p34.
.Dowd, Capt. p7.
.Dowell, Noah, p53-54.
.Drayton, Thomas, p62, 90, 113.
.Dunnington, Col. John W., p31-33.
.Erwin, George T., p65.
.Falconer, Kenlock, p62.
.Gantt, E. W. p5.
.Garland, Col. Robert R., p32-33.
.Gentry, Franklin, 152.
.Gillespie, Col., p33.
.Govan, D. C., p59-60, 77-78, 81.
.Gratiot, Col. John R. p7.
.Green, Martin E., p15.
.Greene, P. I., p78.
.Hardee, Gen. Wm J., p47, 49-50, 70, 73, 76, 80-81, 170.
.Hartzig, Capt., p7.
.Herring, Ichobod, p53.
.Hill, Daniel H., p50.
.Hindman, Thomas C., p22-23, 25, 31, 61.
.Hoffman, W., p40.
.Holmes, Theophilus H., p31, 86-87, 90.
.Holt, Col. Geo. M., 118, 124.
.Hood, John Bell, p69-70, 75-77, 80.
.Hunt, Ransom, p53.
.Hunt, William, p53.
.Jackson, Andrew, p11.
.Johnson, Alfred, p33.
.Johnston, Albert Sidney, p12.
.Johnston, Joseph, p3, 61, 64, 66-69, 78, 80-82, 92, 123, 136.
.Lawrence, Capt., p7.
.Lee, Robert E., p81, 92.
.Lee, S. D., p77.
.Liddell, Gen. St John R., p59.
.Loring, Gen. William W., p71, 82, 125.
.Lyon, Gen. Nathaniel, p8.
.Marmaduke, John S., p92.
.Marshall, J. G., p25.
.McClernand, John A., p10, 31.
.McCulloch, Ben, p5, 8, 11, 15, 17.
.McMillian, John W., 159.
.McMillion, Joshua, p159.
.Mitchell, Charles B., p5, 86, 148, 154, 157.
.Morgan, George W. p31.
.Neal, Joseph, p5, 6, 11.
.Nutt, Capt., p32.
.Pearce, Gen. N. B., p7, 8.
.Pike, Albert, p15, 17, 19, 22-24, 73, 108, 170.
.Portlock, E. E., p31-33, 90, 148.
.Price, Sterling, p5-8,11,15,24, 85-92, 98,104,140-149,161,170-174.
.Rayston, G. D., p86.
.Reid, George C. p120.
.Reid, Capt, J. G., p8.
.Richardson, Capt., p32.
.Schofield, Gen. John M., p76-77.
.Sidon, J. A., p78.
.Sigel, Col. Franz, p8.
.Smith, E. Kirby, p64, 86, 90, 92, 160, 164.
.Sherman, William Tecumseh, p3,31,33,60,66-68,70,73,76-77,80-82.
.Smith. Gen. J. T., p78.
.Steele, Gen. Frederick, p87, 90-91, 167.
.Stewart, Alex, p68, 77, 80.
.Stoneman, George, p70.
.Sturgis, Maj. S. D., p8.
.Tappan, J. C., p85, 89-91.
.Taylor, Richard, p41, 79-80, 83, 90, 126, 130, 174, 175.
.Thayer, Gen. John M, p90-91.
.Thomas, George A., p56, 76, 77.
.Titsworth, Capt., p7.
.Totten, Capt., p8.
.Van Dorn, Earl, p15, 22.
.Walker, Gen. J. D., p8.
.Webber, Edwin L., p40.
.West, Henry, p25.
.Whaling, Capt., p7.
.Williams, Hampton, 108.
.Withers, John, p78.
.Woodruff, William E., p5, 7, 8, 23, 25.
.Wright, A. W., p22
ADDENDA: Material entered after the book was printed.
Forgy, Jackson O'neal, later Captain in Hardy's Regt.
McCown, Simeon (earlier, Davis Blues), enlisted 2-26-1862, Co. I, 19th Ark. Elkhorn Tavern, Regt. Commissary, 8-13-1862, Arkansas Post, captured, to Camp Douglas, Ill., A slave accompanied Simeon, was also captured, froze to death at Camp Douglas. Simeon was exchanged, To Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Atlanta Campaign, Tennessee Campaign, North Carolina at the surrender, April, 1865. Wife, Margaret Elizabeth and 6 children at home during the war.
Thomas, Francis Marion, died of measles at Cane Hill, Ar., 4-22-1862, body returned to Nashville, Ar. for burial.
Yeargan, survived the war, honorably released, came home and raised a family. Buried at Kirby, Ark.
Chickamauga, condensed report of Col. A. S. Hutchinson, 10-6-1863. Evening of 9-19-63, Regt. formed, Brigade center, advanced ca. 600 yds, firing started on right. 3 prisoners taken by skirmishers. Enemy driven back, the Regt. fell back ca. 200 yards. Sunday, 20th, moved to front. Advancing 3/4 mile, came under destructive fire from enemy batteries, continued forward until 200 yards from the enemy, to crest of a hill. Halted, ordered the men lie down, commence firing, continued over 3 hours, ammunition nearly exhausted. Leaving heavy skirmishers, fell back under crest of hill. Musket, Grape and Canister had frightfully thinned ranks. No further engagement. The Regt. numbered 226, 8 killed on the field, 97 wounded and 1 missing, totalling 106 casualties. Names of the slightly wounded were not given in the list of casualties.
Ringgold Gap, condensed report of Col. A. S. Hutchinson made 12-2-1863. About 9 a.m. on Nov. 27th, Regt formed 50 yards behind 5th and 13th Ark, guarding artillery at the mouth of the gap, on the Ringgold - Tunnel Hill road. Heavy skirmishing commenced, Regt. ordered to lie down for about 2 hours, continuous shower of balls passing overhead caused some wounds. At length, with bayonets fixed, they moved forward, mixed in the trenches with Murry's Regt., fought the balance of the engagement. When ordered to move out, passed to the right, behind the crest of the ridge toward Tunnel Hill, under heavy fire that did no damage. Loss was 2 killed and 14 wounded, some severely wounded taken prisoner. Formed again behind Chickamauga Creek, but no further action.
Gen. Hood gives the strength of his army on Nov. 6 to be 30,600 men present, then, 10 days after the battle of Franklin, at 23,053. Losses from all causes were 7,547 in the battle of Franklin. Later at Tupelo, Miss., his estimate was of 18,000 men present. In any event, it appears that losses in the Battle of Nashville were about 5,000. In the 2 battles, losses amounted to an excess of 12,000 (Hood wrote that it would not exceed 10,000), almost 1/2 of the entire force. From Tupelo, some units were detailed away, and a
number of men furloughed, several to Arkansas. Of those furloughed to Arkansas, some of them joined other units operating in that state. Only about 5,000 men made their way to North Carolina to Join Gen. Johnstons command.
Lt. Thomas J. Stokes, Life In Dixie During The War, Mary A. H. Gay, 1979. 10th Texas Inf., captured at the Battle of Arkansas Post, Jan. 11, 1863. Incarcerated at Came Chase, Ohio, Exchanged at City Point, Va. May? 1863. Transported on a river boat, with about 2,200 other prisoners, with scarcely standing room. The boat had recently transported smallpox patients in the Union Army. Many prisoners died enroute. Date April 5, 1864, Dalton, Ga., Unsettled weather for some weeks back. April 18, 1864, Much religious activity occurring. "There must have been baptized yesterday 150 persons, maybe 200. This revival spirit is not confined to a part only, but pervades the whole army." May 5, a dispatch has been received to the effect that the Yankees are advancing in the direction of Tunnel Hill. May 22, Allatoona Mountains, We fought them and whipped them, until, being flanked, we were compelled to fall back. We fought them again at Cass Station, driving them in our front, but, as before, and for the same reason, we were compelled to retreat. May 31, We were ordered from the battlefield on Sunday Morning to go and take position in supporting distance of the left wing of the army, arrived about the middle of the forenoon, remained until yesterday evening, ordered back to the rear of the left center where we are now. Perfectly quiet, no heavy demonstrations by the enemy. The Battle of New Hope Church on Friday evening, 27th inst., supporting troops in the center of the right wing since the day before. About 2 p.m., hurried to extreme right, heavy force trying to turn our right. Before properly formed, enemy firing into us rapidly. Commenced one of the hottest engagements, so far, in this campaign, just one single line against a whole corps of the enemy, and a lt. of the 19th Ark., wounded and captured by them, and subsequently retaken by our brigade, stated that another corps of the enemy came up about sundown. Our men would cry out to the Yankees, Come on, we are demoralized. The fighting was very close and desperate, and lasted until after dark. About 11 p.m., three regiments of our brigade charged them, our regt one of them, drove the enemy entirely from the field, captured many prisoners, the dead and wounded fell into our hands. The next morning, walked over the scene, the wounded, dead and dying, hundreds upon hundreds. For the numbers engaged upon our side, it is said to be the greatest slaughter of the enemy of any recent battle., eight of the regiment killed, two died since. June 5, near an old log church called Gilgal. June 14, Lost Mountain. June 22, in the ditches. July 6, near the Chattahoochee River, tells of the retreat from Kennesaw Mountain to Smyrna Church, had a small fight the day before in which several comrades were killed. Oct 17, Alpine, Ga. Leaving Palmetto on 29th Sept., crossed the Chattahoochee below, to Powder Springs, threatened Marietta, Stewart's Corps above Big Shanty. French's Div. attacked Allatoona. Marched to Rome, up the Oostanaula, one Div across the river captures Calhoun, tearing up railroad above
Resaca to Tunnel Hill and captured Dalton, to Lafayette. Oct. 18, Cherokee, Ala. Oct. 28th, near Decatur, Ala., some skirmishing and artillery, in line of battle 1 1/4 miles s. w. of Decatur. Nov 10, Tuscumbia, Ala, arrived here Oct. 31, same letter Nov 12, expect to leave for middle Tenn next Mondays. The disabled are being retired and sent over (the river). Nov. 30th, killed on the battlefield thirty steps from the breastworks at Franklin, Tenn.
The Battle of Jenkins Ferry, Dr. J. N. Bragg, Surgeon, CSA. in Garden of Memories. On the 27th day of April, 1864, the division of Gen. Churchill, to which I belonged, was lying at the little village of Buena Vista, ten miles south west of Camden, which ...was occupied by the Federal Army under Gen. Steele. About noon on that day, a citizen came out and brought the information that the enemy had evacuated Camden and retreated in the direction of Little Rock. As soon as three days rations could be prepared, we were on the road to Camden. That night, we bivouacked on the banks of the Ouachita river at the ferry. Our Division was in front. It was decided to pursue Steele, and the next morning we began crossing the river on floating logs, the ends being fastened together, and each end of this structure fastened to the shore. The men could only walk in single file and ten feet apart, so the crossing was slow and tedious. ...We all got over the river by noon and took up the line of march towards Princeton. That night we lay in the woods at Freeo. At 3 o'clock next morning we were on the road again. All day we kept up a weary tramp. ... By and by we came to Princeton ... we made on stop at Princeton: the trail was growing warm. Towards night we reached Tulip, and took the road to Jenkin's Ferry ... At midnight we were called into line and ordered to move on. ... Sounds of distant thunder fell upon the ear, which, as it came nearer, swelled into a roar. ... then a flash of lightning would come and reveal a line of bayonets stretching away down the road and out into the darkness. ... A mile further on we came to Marmaduke's camp fires and stopped. The pursuit was thought to be ended. In a little while, the report came that a few Federals were still on this side of the river, and that we should go and take them in. So we started on once more - Tappan's brigade in front and our regiment at the head. After going two miles, we passed Marmaduke's cavalry horses drawn up in a line on the roadside. His men were dismounted and were skirmishing with the enemy down in the edge of the river swamp. When we arrived at the top of the hill overlooking the swamp, Generals Price, Churchill and Marmaduke were sitting on their horses on the road. They seemed to have settled on what was to be done, for Tappan's brigade was at once ordered to deploy as skirmishers and advance into the swamp. When it was deployed, the line was too long to handle the thick undergrowth. So our regiment (Grinstead's) was ordered to "assemble to the right of the fourth company." Grinstead was ordered to take the color companies of the other two regiments, in addition to his own regiment, and remain quiet until further orders. We stood there and saw the other two regiments, to the right and left of us, go forward and disappear in the woods beyond a little field. While this was going on, we were intently watching
Marmaduke's men skirmish in the field. It was interesting. Two or three of them behind the same tree would sight for an interminable length of time at the woods, then fire and hide behind the tree until they could load their guns again. ... it was a good half mile to where the enemy was located. After our regiment had stood there in line some twenty minutes, it was ordered forward and into action. ... The rain puttered down steadily. The men stood in the ranks cold, wet and hungry and gazed down into that dismal cheerless swamp. ... the regiment moved down across the little field as steadily as though it was on drill. The men did not jostle each other even. By some oversight, there were no skirmishers in front of the regiment, and as a consequence it marched up to within thirty paces of the Federal line of Battle, where Steel's army was waiting to be attacked. Two hundred and twenty men could not last long before an army corps, and after a few minutes trial, with a loss of ninety two killed and wounded, including Col. Grenstead shot dead. The regiment fell back in disorder. A portion of it, however, rallied under Lieutenant Colonel Tom D. Thompson and went in with every successive command until the battle was ended. ...that memorable 13th day of April... the brigade of L. C. Gause went in after Tappan's, and it in turn was followed by Hawthorn's and this latter by McNair's. This comprises Churchill's Division. After this Parson's Missouri Brigade went in. ... Then the firing began to get farther away, and it was evident the Missourians were rolling the tide of Battle back. After awhile they reached the second line, and the pause was longer, then the wave began to move again... Then the firing became more distinct. Parson's was being pressed back... About this time Walker's Division of Texas troops...arrived on the field. They went in sections, one behind the other, and, being of mutual support...drove the enemy across the river....
Letter from Capt Heineman, USA to Capt. Milton A Elliot, The Garden of Memory. Written Appleton, Wis., Feb. 22, 1904.
My dear young friend of long ago, ...you were 13, as you say, in '64 and I was 24. We are both old now. ...General Solomon died four years ago.... When I was sick at Little Rock, and nigh unto death (an old lady - God bless her -(who had lost a son just about my age at the battle of Prairie Grove, where I had fought on one side and her son on the other) nursed me as lovingly as if I had been her own child. The family was impoverished, and I made partial return for her kindness by drawing on our commissary for their support as long as we were stationed there - four or five months. ...
Diary of Capt. Heineman, USA, Member of the staff of Brig. Gen. Solomon. April 18, 1864. After a great considerable amount of talk, fuss and feathers, we are at last in the city (or village) of Camden. ... Yesterday three men of the seventy seventh Ohio straggled out of our lines, either to forage or plunder. They were met by a party of rebs wearing our uniforms and shot, i.e., two of them, for one returned to tell the tale. ... we now have two flouring mills in full operation, supplying our troops with meal
and running night and day until our own supplies can be brought up from the Bluff. We captured, among other conveniences, one steamer - The Twilight - which now renders excellent service in bringing up breadstuff, much needed. Camden is but a small place... April 19th. Battle of Poison Springs. Last evening information was brought that the forage train sent out for corn (200 wagons, six mule teams), escorted by the eighteenth Iowa Infantry, Second Kansas (Colored) (Our Ironclads), two squadrons of cavalry, with two pieces of Rabb's Indiana Battery, the whole outfit was gobbled up by the Johnnies. This report was shortly confirmed, but modified to some extent. The train, two pieces of artillery and perhaps 500 prisoners constitute the loss. Stragglers from the scene of action are coming in hourly. ... While the eighteenth Iowa left everything in the hands of the enemy, it at least preserved its organization and retreated in good order. It came into camp with empty cartridge boxes. The Second Kansas (Colored) was badly cut up, losing more than half its members. The two pieces of artillery were spiked before they fell into the enemy's hands. We expect a supply train up from Pine Bluff to reach here tomorrow. A brigade, picked temporarily from our best fighting material, commanded by Col. Thomas H. Benton, Jr. is already enroute to meet it. ... Colonel Kittredge with his thirty Sixth Iowa, who had orders to proceed six miles from here to take possession of a flouring mill, was ordered back as soon as the news of the massacre at Liberty came in. ... We are taking the necessary steps to locate the Johnnies, and as soon as we have them bunched somewhere someone is going to be licked. From what information we have it looks strange to all of us. The enemy is everywhere and seemingly in large numbers. In conversation with General S. this morning I asked him what Steele thought of the situation. "Steel" he replied, "Steel knows that he is a West Pointer, and doesn't appear to know anything about Arkansas, where he is, or what he thinks of doing. Damn these regulars! They map out battles on paper, draw their salaries and - smoke cigars. The worse of it is they always keep clear of the fire line which bars the good luck of getting them shot out of the way!" "Has he heard anything from Banks?" I asked. "No, he don't know anything." "Suppose," I said, "Banks is whipped and the whole posse of rebels are on our back?" "Then we'll run, fight and run. What else can be done?" April 23rd ... On the 20th our supply train came in, with mail from home and other comforts. It was not attacked. ... Every day seems to add to the forces gathering around us. It looks as though they mean to attack us here, and I begin to have some misgivings that something has gone wrong on the Red River; suggested as much to the old man this morning, but he thought that to be impossible. Said he would see Steele, but I suggested that he had better find out for himself. Have no confidence in these West Point parrots. A cobbler with common sense who don't know it all is infinitely safer in a fight. At 7:30 p.m. this afternoon the Johnnies advanced and began shelling our picket line. .... She was informed that a flag of truce had been sent to Steele on Friday by the Confederate General asking that the women and children be permitted to leave the place. ... As the Johnnies were drawing
their cordon closed and tighter round and about us, it was thought best to remove our headquarters to the rear... April 25, '64. Yesterday was Sunday, and if the Johnnies meant to close in on us, they certainly did not for this once, try it on Sunday. ... being busy packing up and moving about with our office outfit. ... A brigade, composed of infantry, cavalry and artillery has been ordered out to some point, probably to reconnoitre, so that Steele will know to a certainty (what we have known for some days) that we are being hemmed in, and the longer we stay the surer we will be of being licked. We ought to have moved out of here three days ago and chosen better grounds for a fight on the defensive, and not allowed a concentration of forces three miles from our own; but Steele knows better. ... April 26, '64. Last evening information was brought that our supply train (No. 2) is captured. ... orders from corps headquarters that we "move at dark without music, noise or confusion.... We are on the retreat, leaving our sick in charge of Surgeon Finlaw. General S. has but one plan, in which we all join without a dissenting voice. It is: Save our artillery and baggage, run like whiteheads for the Saline bottom, cut through anything that puts itself in our way and with the river at our back, the bogs at our flanks, face about and fight for our lives. Will we make that point? That is the question.