Camp White Sulphur Springs
Camp White Sulphur Spring is the enclusive name for several Camps of Instruction and Divisional Headquaters, Hospital and Commissary of General John S. Roane (July to September 1862) located with one mile of this community located five miles (present day) southwest of Pine Bluff Ar. on Arkansas Highway 54. White Sulphur Springs was then located on the Pine Bluff to Princeton Ar. Road, which was used as a Telegraph Wire Road and Stage Coach Road. First established May 1862 with the mustering of 3 Companies of Morgan Battalion on May 12th.(a.) Unit was transferred to Little Rock by the end of May and became 26th Arkansas Infantry.
Camp was occupied by Dawson's 19th Arkansas Infantry arriving from Gen'l Albert Pikes Command in Indian Territories (Oklahoma) by way of Little Rock. (b.). Unit was moved to Camp Lee to become the part of Col. Robert G. Shavers Brigade in a Camp Of Instruction established at Camp Lee for Arkansas Troops. The 19th Arkansas remained at Camp White Sulphur Springs/Camp Lee until September 28th, 1862 when the Brigade was ordered to Clarendon, Ar.
General John S. Roane is ordered to establish his headquaters at White Sulphur Springs and to move all Commissary stores there. Surgeon John Collins is ordered to move the Hospital at Pine Bluff to White Sulphur Springs. (b.)
Captain Theophilus Perry, 28th Texas Cavalry, Walkers Texas Infantry Division establishes a brigade Commisary at Camp White Sulphur Springs.(e.)
Various detachments of the 19th, 24th and Crawfords battalion of Arkansas Infantry are gathered at Camp White Sulphur Springs and organized into a "holding Regiment" under the command of Col Charles Dawson to await the exchanged of portions of these commands which were captured at Fort Hindman during the Battle of Arkansas Post. These troops remained at Camp White Sulphur Springs wher in May of 1863 it was realized that these men captured at Arkansas Post would not be rejoining their original commands. These men at White Sulphur Springs were reconstituted as Lt Col Hardy's Regiment of Arkansas Infantry. Also designated as 19th/24th Arkansas Infantry.
Hardy's Regiment is assigned to Gen'l Daniel Frost Missouri Infantry Brigade and ordered to the defence of Little Rock.
First establish on the property of Mr. Lea at his Springs on the Lee' Springs Road 3/4 of a mile west of the Sulphur Spring Community in August 1861 with the muster of the 9th Arkansas Infantry after the town of Pine Bluff proved to be poorly suited for the housing of regimental sized units.
Campsite was appearently not used between September 1861 to June 1862.
The arrival of Dawson's 19th Arkansas Infantry in June 1862 established Camp Lee as a Camp of Instruction under the direction of Col. Robert G. Shavers(c.)
Col Hiram Grinstead with the companies raised in the Camden Area is ordered to Camp White Sulphur Springs By Gen T. C. Hindman for origanization of the 33rd Arkansas Infantry and placed in the Camp Of Instruction at Camp Lee and becomes a part of Shavers Brigade of Arkansas Infantry. (c) Col Grinstead and 9 others join the Masonic Lodge at White Sulphur Springs.
Extra companies of the 19th and 33rd Arkansas Infantry and extra recruits are reorganized as Col. Edward E. Portlocks 24th Arkansas Infantry. Enlistees under the Conscription Act of April 1862 are organized into Lt. Col. William Crawfords battalion of Arkansas Infantry. These new Units are assigned to Shavers Brigade and Camp Of Instruction.
A detachment from Portlock's 24th Arkansas Infantry are sent to Indian Territories to retrieve a battery of Parrot Guns at Fort Washita to be brought to Camp White Sulphur Springs. These Guns and Volunteers from the 24th Arkansas are used to reorganized Hart's Battery of Arkansas Light Artillery.
10 independent companies of Arkansas Cavalry are ordered to Camp Lee/White Sulphur Springs to be organized into Fagan's/Monroe's 1st/6th Arkansas Cavalry regiment.
Col Robert G. Shavers is detached from Command of his Brigade and command evolves to Colonel Charles Dawson. The 33rd Arkansas is detached as an independent command assigned to Col. R.G. Shaver. Dawson's Brigade is assigned to the Division of General Jogn S. Roane and the Division is ordered to Clarendon Ar. on the White River. (d.)
The 33rd Arkansas is ordered to little Rock under the direction of Col. R.G. Shavers. Lt. Col. Francis Chrisman with his Arkansas Cavalry battalion is order to assume command at Pine Bluff and Camp White Sulphur Springs.
Camp Holmes was established 3/4 miles east of the Community of White Sulphur Springs with the arrival of Col Robert Garlands 6th Texas Infantry as a camp of Instruction.
Col Garland's command was increased to a Brigade with the addition of the Col. Francis C. Wilkes 24th Texas Cavalry and Col.Clayton C. Gillespie's 25th Texas Cavalry with were dismounted under general order and converted to infantry.
Col Garlands Command is increased with the reorganization and reconstitution and addition of Hart's Battery of Arkansas Light Artillery.
Col Garland's Brigade is ordered to the lower Arkansas River to support the Construction of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post.
Used as a brigade campsite for Flournoy’s Brigade of Texas Infantry Gen. John G. Walkers Texas Division Possibly until April 1863.
Confederate Cavalry Camp associated with Camp White Sulphur Spring. Located on the Pine Bluff to Princeton road behind the Sulphur Spring Methodist Church.
Units known to have used this Campsite at various times was
Denson Louisiana Cavalry Company,
Nutt’s Louisiana Red River Rangers Cavalry Company (Later combine into the 6th Louisiana Cavalry Regiment),
Alf Johnston Texas Spy Cavalry Company,
W. P. Lane Texas Ranger’s
Parson’s 12th Texas Cavalry Regiment,
Carter’s 21st Texas Cavalry Regiment,
The 1st/6th Fagan’s/Monroe’s Arkansas Cavalry Regiment,
F. M. Chrisman’s Arkansas Cavalry Battalion,
Located 4 miles north of the Jefferson County Court House at Pine Bluff Arkansas on the 400 acre Plantation of Mr. William Wright (Now the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff). Campsite of Randal’s Brigade of Texas Infantry, Walker’s Texas Division.
Camp Wright was occupied until April 1863
Located just northwest of the Jefferson County Courthouse Pine Bluff Arkansas on the banks of the Arkansas River in Pine Bluff. Was the Campsite of Randal Texas Infantry Brigade for two week at the end of January before moving to Camp Wright.
Located on the South Side of the Arkansas River on Day’s Bluff 2 miles north of Camp Wright. Originally called Fort Weightman, The name was Changed to honor Col J. C. Pleasant of the 37th Arkansas Infantry from England Arkansas, who was killed at the Battle of Praire Grove, Arkansas. Constructrion was begun short after the fall of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post In Mid January 1863.
The Fort was 300 yards square of earthen works and Cypress logs fronting the Arkansas River. The Fort mounted two heavy guns recovered from the well at Fort Hindman by the 12th Texas Cavalry. One 7 inch Naval Gun (today known as “Lady Baxter old State house Museum), and one 9 inch Naval gun.
The Fort was manned by Gen. Daniel Frost Missouri Infantry Brigade which consisted of Mitchells 8th Missouri Infantry, Clarks 9th Missouri Infantry, Musser battalion Missouri Infantry, Ruffner’s Battery of Missouri Light Artillery, and Von Phul Battery of Light Artillery.
From Time to time units such as the 12th Texas cavalry, and Alf Johnson Texas Spy company were associated with Fort Pleasant as a staging point for operations against Helena Arkansas and union Shipping on the Mississippi River.
The Fort was continuously occupied from it construction until Mid to late July 1863 when it was ordered abandoned, it Heavy weapons dismounted and shipped to the Little Rock Arsenal and it Gen Frost Brigade was ordered to the defense of Little Rock.
Camp of Gen. Daniel Frost’s Missouri Infantry Brigade located beside Fort Pleasant. It was abandoned in July 1863.
Located on the Douglas Plantation on the Arkansas River in Southeast Jefferson County, (now Lincoln County). In Joseph Blessington’s History of Walkers Texas Brigade it was also known as “Camp Skeedaddle” and “Camp Freezeout”. It was the defensive position established by Walkers Texas Division in their attempt to relieve the Garrison at Arkansas Post January 1863. A mud fortification was constructed here for that purpose.
Fort Douglas was abandoned in late Jaunary 1863 once the immediate Union threat diminished in favor of a more suitable location at Jordan’s Plantation (South Bend) on the River road crossing the Arkansas River going to Arkansas Post.
Camp Stonewall Jackson
Located in Jefferson County, mentioned in "Forty Seven Years" by Skipper Steely, Wright Press, Paris Texas, 1999. As a campsite of Douglas’ 9th Texas Battery of Light Artillery.
(a.) Muster Rolls of Morgan Regiment Arkansas Infantry
(b.) Hindman Copybook of Telegraphs May to October 1862 Peter W. Alexander Collection
(c.) Muster Rolls of 33rd Arkansas Infantry, Hindman Copybook of Telegraphs
(d.) Official Records, September 28th, 1862.
(e.) "Widows by the Thousands, the Theophilus Perry letters" by M. Jane Johansson, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas
(f.) Letters of Lt J. G. Farr’s, Hardy Regiment, Butler Center, Little Rock Library, Little Rock, Arkansas.
(g.) The Civil War letters of Sargeant Johnathan T. Knight from Pine Bluff
Arkansas January to March 1863;
(h.) "The Autobiography of Henry Merrell, Industrial Missionary to the South",
edited by James L. Skinner III, University of Georgia Press, 1991.
(i.) "Forty Seven Years" by Skipper Steely, Wright Press, Paris Texas, 1999.
(j.)"Pecular Honor, A History of the 28th Texas Cavalry 1862 -1865", By M. Jane
Johansson, University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas 1998.
(k.) “Diaries of Capt. Thomas Smith, Company “I”, 11th Texas Infantry, 1862 – 1864” Private Printing by Dr. Betty Cravy, Hot Spring Arkansas.
(l.) “Recollections of a Pioneer” J. Watt Gibson, Two Trails Publishing. 1999